In individuals diagnosed with AIDS, the primary method of sustained suppression of HIV-1 replication is antiretroviral therapy, which systematically increases CD4+ T cell levels and restores immune function. However, there is still a subset of 10–40% of people living with HIV who not only fail to reach normal CD4+ T cell counts but also experience severe immune dysfunction. These individuals are referred to as immunological nonresponders (INRs). INRs have a higher susceptibility to opportunistic infections and non–AIDS-related illnesses, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality rates. Therefore, it is crucial to gain new insights into the primary mechanisms of immune reconstitution failure to enable early and effective treatment for individuals at risk. This review provides an overview of the dynamics of key lymphocyte subpopulations, the main molecular mechanisms of INRs, clinical diagnosis, and intervention strategies during immune reconstitution failure, primarily from a multiomics perspective.

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