RIG-I–like receptors and NOD-like receptors play pivotal roles in recognizing microbe-associated molecular patterns and initiating immune responses. The LGP2 and NOD2 proteins are important members of the RIG-I–like receptor and NOD-like receptor families, recognizing viral RNA and bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN), respectively. However, in some instances bacterial infections can induce LPG2 expression via a mechanism that remains largely unknown. In the current study, we found that LGP2 can compete with NOD2 for PGN binding and inhibit antibacterial immunity by suppressing the NOD2–RIP2 axis. Recombinant CiLGP2 (Ctenopharyngodon idella LGP2) produced using either prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression platform can bind PGN and bacteria in pull-down and ELISA assays. Comparative protein structure models and intermolecular interaction prediction calculations as well as pull-down and colocalization experiments indicated that CiLGP2 binds PGN via its EEK motif with species and structural specificity. EEK deletion abolished PGN binding of CiLGP2, but insertion of the CiLGP2 EEK motif into zebrafish and mouse LGP2 did not confer PGN binding activity. CiLGP2 also facilitates bacterial replication by interacting with CiNOD2 to suppress expression of NOD2–RIP2 pathway genes. Sequence analysis and experimental verification demonstrated that LGP2 having EEK motif that can negatively regulate antibacterial immune function is present in Cyprinidae and Xenocyprididae families. These results show that LGP2 containing EEK motif competes with NOD2 for PGN binding and suppresses antibacterial immunity by inhibiting the NOD2–RIP2 axis, indicating that LGP2 plays a crucial negative role in antibacterial response beyond its classical regulatory function in antiviral immunity.

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