Immunometabolism has been demonstrated to control immune tolerance and the pathogenic events leading to autoimmunity. Compelling experimental evidence also suggests that intracellular metabolic programs influence differentiation, phenotype, proliferation, and effector functions of anti-inflammatory CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Indeed, alterations in intracellular metabolism associate with quantitative and qualitative impairments of Treg cells in several pathological conditions. In this review, we summarize the most recent advances linking how metabolic pathways control Treg cell homeostasis and their alterations occurring in autoimmunity. Also, we analyze how metabolic manipulations could be employed to restore Treg cell frequency and function with the aim to create novel therapeutic opportunities to halt immune-mediated disorders.

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