The interface between immunology and engineering, that is, immunoengineering, is becoming fertile ground for innovation. Engineering comes into play when basic science has progressed such that design rules can be discerned. One can find examples of immunoengineering in the design of molecular therapeutics, delivery systems for molecular and cellular therapeutics, cellular therapeutics themselves, and experimental and computational analytical systems to tease out new aspects of basic immunology, leading to new design rules. In the realm of immunoengineering there are notable applications for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. These include the development of molecular and nanomaterial vaccines for infectious disease prevention and cancer treatment. These materials also play a role in creating inverse vaccines to address conditions such as autoimmunity and allergies, or counteracting immune responses to drugs. Delivery technologies also have the potential to enhance immunity in tumors or quell it in sites of inflammation, autoimmunity, or transplantation. Additionally, there...

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