The gut microbiota, predominantly residing in the colon, is a complex ecosystem with a pivotal role in the host immune system. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with various diseases, and there is an urgent need to develop new therapeutics that target the microbiome and restore immune functions. This Brief Review discusses emerging therapeutic strategies that focus on oral delivery systems for modulating the gut microbiome. These strategies include genetic engineering of probiotics, probiotic-biomaterial hybrids, dietary fibers, and oral delivery systems for microbial metabolites, antimicrobial peptides, RNA, and antibiotics. Engineered oral formulations have demonstrated promising outcomes in reshaping the gut microbiome and influencing immune responses in preclinical studies. By leveraging these approaches, the interplay between the gut microbiota and the immune system can be harnessed for the development of novel therapeutics against cancer, autoimmune disorders, and allergies.

You do not currently have access to this content.