The one-carbon metabolism enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 2 (MTHFD2) is critical for cancer cell proliferation and immune cell phenotypes, but whether it can contribute to macrophage inflammatory responses remains unclear. In this study, we show that MTHFD2 was upregulated by LPS in murine macrophages upon activation of the TLR4–MyD88–IKKα/β–NF-κB signaling pathway. MTHFD2 significantly attenuated LPS-induced macrophage proinflammatory cytokine production through its enzymatic activity. Notably, ablation of myeloid MTHFD2 rendered mice more sensitive to septic shock and CCl4-induced acute hepatitis. Mechanistically, MTHFD2 restrained IKKα/β–NF-κB activation and macrophage inflammatory phenotype by scavenging reactive oxygen species through the generation of NADPH. Our study reveals MTHFD2 as a “self-control” mechanism in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses.

You do not currently have access to this content.