A number of investigators have studied the nature of electric charge of antibodies, especially of agglutinins. Landsteiner and Pauli (1908) were the first to record from cataphoresis experiments that the haemagglutinin of chicken serum carries a negative charge in neutral and alkaline solution and a positive charge in acid solution. Michaelis and Davidsohn (1912) determined the isoelectric point of various antibodies. They found the isoelectric point of agglutinins for B. typhosus to be between (H·) 1.0 × 10-6 and 5.1 × 10-6 and for precipitins between 3 × 10-6 and 6 × 10-6. From that they concluded that the antibodies are amphoteric and that their isoelectric point is identical with that of the globulins, that is (H·) 4 × 10-6. Recently Vera Schroeder (1930) found that the isoagglutinins are amphoteric proteins with an isoelectric point at pH 4.0.

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