It has been repeatedly pointed out that active immunization against leptospirosis in man and animals is one of the most desirable means of protection against serious illness or loss of life through the infection. Because diagnosis is usually delayed, chemotherapy, although valuable and effective in the early stages of the disease, often comes too late to prevent serious kidney damage.

Although chemotherapy offers excellent means of eliminating the carrier state in canicola infections (1), dog-owners have little enthusiasm for this form of preventive veterinary medicine, primarily because repeated treatment is costly and inconvenient. Unfortunately, the incidence of canicola carriers among the dog population is underestimated despite the fact that over 195 human infections have been recognized (2–6a) and that Broom (7) recently found that 10 of 13 dogs in the vicinity of 2 patients with canicola fever were active shedders of leptospirae.

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