The studies of Landsteiner (1), Decastello and Sturli (2), Jansky (3), Moss (4), von Dungern and Hirschfeld (5) and others, have established the fact that there are four different groups of human individuals with respect to the isoagglutinating and isoagglutinable blood elements. In 1919, L. Hirschfeld and H. Hirschfeld (6) studied a number of soldiers belonging to the Allied Armies in Macedonia, and found that there was a remarkable difference in the blood grouping in the different races. The proportion of A (in the corpuscles of groups II and IV1) to B (in the corpuscles of groups III and IV); i.e., was called by them “the biochemical race-index,” and the race, in which the index amounted to more than 2.0 was called “of European type,” and that, from 2.0 to 1.0, “of intermediate type” and that, less than 1.0 “of Asio-African type.”


In this article the isoagglutinins and isoagglutinable elements have been designated with the letters originally given them by Landsteiner and recognized in the later extensive studies of von Dungern, of the Hirschfelds and of Ottenberg.

The group numbering is that of Jansky, which has been officially adopted by the American Association of Pathologists, the Society of American Bacteriologists, and the American Association of Immunologists.

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