Antigen-binding cells were identified by using rosette formation of Toxoplasma gondii and defined lymphoid populations under different experimental conditions. Treatment of immunized spleen cell suspensions with anti-Thy 1 serum plus complement inhibited 5 to 29% of the rosette-forming cells (RFC). Higher numbers of thymus-derived lymphocyte-RFC were obtained after incubation at 4°C and by the centrifugation method than by simple incubation at 20°C. RFC were also observed with thymocytes. Combined treatment with anti-Thy 1 serum plus complement and depletion of adherent cells indicated that the major proportion, 46 to 70%, of RFC were B cells. Spleenocytes of nu/nu mice formed similarly high numbers of rosettes. Spontaneous RFC were observed in nonimmunized mice with both spleen and thymus populations. Numbers of rosettes varied considerably depending on the method and the source of cell population used. Removal of adherent cells from spleen suspensions resulted in RFC reduction of 14 to 25% in immunized and 14 to 33% in nonimmunized animals. Pretreatment with anti-mouse immunoglobulin inhibited completely the spleen and spontaneous thymus RFC and partially the thymus RFC in immunized animals.