A monoclonal antibody is described that has been generated in the mouse against cultured human blood monocytes/macrophages. The antibody, designated 25F9, belongs to the IgG1 subclass, detects antigens of m.w. 86,000, and does not react with freshly isolated blood monocytes but reacts with monocytes after 3 days of culture. The expression of the 25F9 antigen on macrophages increases with culture time. Furthermore, the antibody is negative on platelets, granulocytes, lymphocytes, and a large number of human cell lines except the two melanoma lines MeWo and Mel 57. In cryostat sections of normal human tissue (skin, lung, liver, thymus) and of inflammatory or neoplastic tissue (cutaneous lymphoma, eczema, BCG-granuloma, and melanoma), the antibody reacts with scattered macrophages in the dermis but not with epidermal Langerhans cells, with alveolar macrophages, with liver Kupffer cells, and with scattered macrophages in the cortex and medulla of thymus. In eczema, BCG-granuloma, and cutaneous lymphoma, only a few infiltrating macrophages were stained. On the other hand, a large number of macrophages and melanophages reacted positively in melanoma. In some cases melanoma cells also stained weakly positive. Thus, the antibody detects a differentiation antigen preferentially expressed on mature, tissue-fixed macrophages and absent from blood monocytes.