The murine monoclonal antibody OKT3 (IgG2a) was administered prophylactically to 17 renal allograft recipients (5 mg/day, i.v.), either alone or in association with corticosteroids (0.25 mg/kg/day) and azathioprine (3 mg/kg/day). In all patients the kinetics of the IgM and IgG anti-OKT3 response was monitored by means of immunofluorescence and ELISA. All patients treated with OKT3 alone showed a rapid and strong sensitization that completely neutralized the therapeutic effectiveness of the monoclonal antibody. The anti-OKT3 sensitization was manifested by accelerated OKT3 clearance and abrupt reappearance of circulating OKT3+ cells before the end of treatment. This immune response was significantly delayed and reduced in its incidence and intensity in patients receiving low dose corticosteroids and azathioprine in association to OKT3; mainly IgM anti-OKT3 antibodies that did not accelerate OKT3 clearance were then observed. The fine specificity of the antibodies produced was studied, using patients whole sera and various mouse IgG2a-affinity chromatography-purified serum fractions. The results obtained showed that the anti-OKT3 response was remarkably restricted to two main categories of antibodies: a) anti-idiotypic antibodies that inhibited OKT3 binding to T cells and abrogated its therapeutic activity and b) anti-mouse IgG2a (anti-isotypic) antibodies that did not neutralize OKT3 immunosuppressive activity. These results suggest that OKT3-immunized patients might still be sensitive to the immunosuppressive effect of other anti-T cell monoclonals that do not share the OKT3 idiotype and possibly isotype.