Qa-2 was immunoprecipitated from the surface of 125I-labeled C57BL/10 (B10) mouse spleen cells and compared with Qa-2 immunoprecipitated from the surface of R1.1 thymoma cells transfected with Q7b. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that Qa-2 glycoproteins from both of these sources have a relative molecular mass of approximately 37 kDa. After treatment with endoglycosidase F, the Qa-2 polypeptide chains derived from C57BL/10 spleen and Q7b-transfected R1.1 cells displayed identical mobilities in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis because of removal of N-linked oligosaccharide residues. Furthermore, treatment of Qa-2 proteins from both sources with cyanogen bromide or alpha-chymotrypsin resulted in identical peptide fragmentation patterns. These results therefore provide a biochemical correlation between a cloned Qa-region gene produce expressed on the surface of transfected cells, and the Qa-2 glycoprotein on spleen cells that was described a decade ago by serologic methods.