(C57BL/6 x DBA/2)F1 mice transplanted with parental C57BL/6 spleen cells become splenic chimeras, show donor antihost cytotoxic T cell activity, and lose their T cell-mediated, humoral, and natural immunity. Injection of anti-asialo-GM1 (ASGM1) into transplanted mice strongly suppresses splenic cytotoxic activity and causes a significant reduction of spleen cells expressing ASGM1, Thy-1, and Lyt-2. In vitro treatment of spleen cells from transplanted mice with antibody and complement shows that the cytotoxic effector cells are ASGM1+, Thy-1+, Lyt-2+, L3T4-, NK1.1-, and H-2d-, hence of donor origin. The cytotoxic effector cells are specific for H-2d targets and lack NK activity. In an attempt to explore whether in vivo elimination of the cytotoxic effector cells has any influence on splenic chimerism or humoral immunity, F1 mice injected with parental splenocytes were treated with anti-ASGM 1. Results show that this treatment eliminates a substantial proportion of cytotoxic effector cells but has no effect on splenic chimerism or restoration of humoral immunity. It therefore appears that cytotoxic effector cells are not primarily responsible for induction of chimerism or suppression of humoral immunity. In support of this injection of parental spleen cells with the nu/nu mutation induces killer cells in F1 mice but fails to induce splenic chimerism or immunosuppression. In contrast, injection of parental spleen cells with the bg/bg mutation generates both splenic chimerism and suppression of humoral immunity although their ability to generate cytotoxic effector cells in F1 hosts is seriously impaired and comparable to the cytotoxic potential of C57BL/6 nu/nu cells. It is concluded that the ASGM1 + cytotoxic T cells are not primarily responsible for splenic chimerism and suppression of humoral immunity and that the two effects are likely caused by parental cells with a different phenotype and function.