Adherence is an important regulatory signal for several monokines and the proto-oncogenes c-fms and c-fos in human peripheral blood monocytes. Although there is little if any constitutive expression of the IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha and CSF-1 genes in freshly isolated monocytes, adherence is sufficient to induce high steady-state levels of mRNA for TNF and c-fos and more slowly that of CSF-1. Expression of mRNA for the CSF-1R gene, c-fms, was transiently down-regulated by 4 h. In contrast, the induction of high levels of IL-1 beta mRNA were achieved independent of culture conditions. Although all of these genes could be induced by adherence, actual secretion of the mediators required the exposure to a second signal derived from LPS. Thus adherence rapidly primes monocytes for a variety of inflammatory responses, the magnitude of which depends on the nature of a second "activating" signal. It is likely that some of these products act locally as paracrine or autocrine factors to further regulate the phenotype of the differentiating macrophage.

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