Staining of a variety of human tissue sections (lymph node, tonsil, spleen, thymus, kidney, lung, and liver) by the indirect immunoperoxidase method indicated that mAb 44G4, produced against a human pre-B leukemic cell line, was strongly reactive with vascular endothelium. All other cell types observed in these tissues were unreactive. Immunofluorescence staining of endothelial cells isolated from umbilical cord vein and grown in culture confirmed that mAb 44G4 recognized a surface membrane component of vascular endothelium. Granulocytes, monocytes, B and T lymphocytes, and T lymphocytes cultured in the presence of PHA for 72 h did not express the 44G4 Ag. mAb 44G4 reacted weakly with leukemic cells from 28 of 41 patients with non-T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia and 4 of 7 patients with acute myelocytic leukemia, whereas 8 of 10 cases of T cell acute lymphocytic leukemia were negative. Moderate reactivity with leukemic cell lines of pre-B and myelomonocytic origin was also observed. The level of 44G4 Ag on umbilical endothelial cells was three to five times that of leukemic cell lines and 25 times the average levels observed on leukemic cells isolated from patients. Immunoprecipitation of lysates prepared from surface-iodinated endothelial cells and the immunizing pre-B leukemic cell line revealed that the 44G4 Ag from both cell types was composed of two subunits of apparent m.w. 95,000 linked by disulfide bond(s). Comparison of the cellular localization and subunit structure of 44G4 to that of known Ag suggests that it represents a previously undescribed marker of endothelial cells.