Synthetic peptides of proteolipid protein (PLP) were screened for their ability to induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL/J, PL/J, and (SJL x PL)F1 mice, and T cell lines were selected by stimulation of lymph node cells with PLP peptides. PLP 141-151 was found to be less encephalitogenic in SJL/J mice than PLP 139-151, due to deletion of two amino acids from the amino-terminal end. PLP 139-151 immunization induced relapsing EAE in SJL/J and F1 mice but not PL/J mice. In contrast, PLP 43-64 induced relapsing EAE in PL/J and F1 mice but not SJL/J mice. F1 T cell lines specific for either PLP 43-64 or PLP 139-151 adoptively transferred demyelinating EAE to naive F1 recipients. Haplotypes H-2s and H-2u appear to be immunologically co-dominant in F1 mice in the PLP EAE system, which differs from the H-2u dominance in F1 mice in the myelin basic protein EAE system. The identification of a PLP peptide that is encephalitogenic in PL/J mice, in addition to the previous demonstration of PLP peptides that are encephalitogenic for SWR mice (PLP 103-116) and SJL/J mice (PLP 139-151), lends support to a role for PLP as a target Ag in autoimmune demyelinating diseases.