Cross-linking of the high affinity receptor for IgE (Fc epsilon RI) initiates various biochemical and morphologic changes leading to degranulation and synthesis and release of cytokines and lipid mediators. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins was previously reported as the earliest signaling event for the Fc epsilon RI signal transduction pathway. By amino acid sequence determination and cDNA cloning analysis, a 75-kDa protein, termed SPY75, was identified as a major tyrosine-phosphorylated protein in activated mouse mast cells. SPY75, barely tyrosine phosphorylated in resting cells, was rapidly and transiently tyrosine phosphorylated on Fc epsilon RI cross-linking in an Ag concentration-dependent manner. Similar SPY75 tyrosine phosphorylation was observed when Ag receptors on B and T lymphocytes were cross-linked by appropriate antibodies. However, IL-3, granulocyte macrophage-CSF, or stem cell factor did not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of SPY75 in PT-18 mast cells, despite their responsiveness to these cytokines. SPY75 was not physically associated with the receptor or other known signaling molecules. This protein, the mouse homologue of the human HS1 gene product, has putative repetitive helix-turn-helix motifs found in many DNA-binding proteins and a putative nuclear transport signal. It also has a Src homology 3 domain, which is found in many signaling molecules and cytoskeletal proteins. These structural features and the rapid tyrosine phosphorylation on Fc epsilon RI cross-linking suggest that the signal generated by Fc epsilon RI cross-linking is transmitted through tyrosine phosphorylation of SPY75.