Monocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a pivotal step during their egress to tissues at sites of inflammation and immune reactions, and during atherogenesis. In this study, an in vitro flow model and blocking mAb were used to define the role of adhesion molecules in monocyte interactions with activated HUVEC under flow conditions. By videomicroscopy, freely flowing monocytes abruptly halted (initial attachment) on 6-h TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC under flow via L- and P-selectin, whereas E-selectin was not involved. CD49d/CD29 integrin (VLA-4), which can mediate initial attachment of certain T cells to VCAM-1 under flow, did not support monocyte initial attachment. Once initially attached, a small number of monocytes began rolling at 9 microns/s through a mechanism involving L-selectin, as well as CD49d and CD11/CD18 integrins, while the remaining monocytes became firmly adherent, or released to the flow stream. Monocyte stable arrest and subsequent transendothelial migration occurred rapidly and efficiently through either CD49d or CD18 integrin adhesion pathways. Transendothelial passage was also dependent on PECAM-1 (CD31). These data reveal monocytes initially attach to activated endothelium via an L-selectin-dependent mechanism, with a smaller contribution from P-selectin and no contribution by CD49d. Subsequent monocyte rolling, arrest, and transmigration require overlapping functions between multiple members of the selectin, integrin, and Ig gene families.

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