This paper reviews cell surface Ags expressed on mouse hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells. The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD) from CD1 to CD166 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series from Ly-1 to Ly-81 as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments. In addition to an update on mouse nomenclature, there will be a discussion of some known functions of the molecules and brief comments on the use of particular Ags for immunophenotyping of cell subsets. Several novel markers mentioned may prove useful in mouse immunology research.

Molecules on the surface of hemopoietic cells play important roles in the development and function of these cells and have permitted us to understand the immune system in increasingly great depth. In recent years, it has become clear that there is a considerable amount of cross-talk between cells of the hemopoietic system and nonhemopoietic cells, with much of this interplay mediated by cell surface molecules. This review includes a discussion of cell surface Ags expressed on both hemopoietic and nonhemopoietic cells. In addition to an update on nomenclature, there will be a discussion of functions of the molecules, when known, and brief comments on the use of particular Ags for immunophenotyping cell subsets. The review will cover molecules included in the cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and lymphocyte Ag (Ly) series as well as some new Ags without current CD or Ly assignments.

As discussed in previous reviews (1, 2), there is a need for unifying mouse and human nomenclature to facilitate communication between researchers studying these species. For mice, the Ly nomenclature was originally devised to classify genes identified through serologic studies of inbred strains; for humans, the CD nomenclature originates from mAb reactivity to human Ags. Human leukocyte differentiation Ag (HLDA) workshops assign each CD based on the same reactivity to one human Ag by at least two mAbs; provisional CDw are sometimes given to clusters not well characterized or represented by only one mAb (3). The Sixth HLDA Workshop, which took place in 1996, resulted in the assignment of novel CDs with new designations spanning CD131 to CD166. mAb submitted to the workshop are tested by laboratories participating in the following sections: T cell, B cell, NK cell, adhesion, endothelial, myeloid, nonlineage, platelet, cytokine receptor, and blind (multilineage panels). More information can be obtained from the HLDA website (http://mol.genes.nig.ac.jp/hlda) or Protein Reviews on the worldwide web (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/prow).

Over the years, the Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice has continued to assign new Ly and CD names to novel genes and Ags. Since the last update (2), many new Ly designations have been assigned; for example, the F4/80 Ag, whose gene has recently been cloned, was given the designation Ly-71. (See Table I for an update of the Ly nomenclature.) The human homologues of a number of mouse Ags or genes, including members of the Ly-6 and Ly-49 families, have not yet been definitively identified. When a mouse Ly Ag is identified as a human CD homologue, the Ly number for the molecule is withdrawn and reassigned the appropriate CD number. If the mouse molecule was encoded by a gene that is assigned a Ly number, that gene name is withdrawn and reassigned a Cd number, unless another gene name was agreed on by the human and mouse nomenclature groups. As one example, the Ly-5 molecule of the mouse, encoded by Ly5, was assigned CD45 in the human nomenclature for Ags and the gene name CD45. The mouse designations were changed to CD45 for the Ag and, initially, Cd45 for the gene. More recently, the human and mouse nomenclature committees adopted the gene Ptprc for the genes encoding CD45 in both species.

Table I.

Mouse Ly moleculesa

LyStatusCurrent CDPrevious DesignationGene SymbolChromosome
Ly-1 Withdrawn CD5 Ly-35 Cd5 19 
Ly-2 Withdrawn Cd8a  Cd8a 
Ly-3 Withdrawn CD8b  CD8b 
Ly-4 Withdrawn CD4  CD4 
Ly-5 Withdrawn CD45  Ptprc 
Ly-6A   TAP, Sca-1, Ly-6D Ly6a 15 
Ly-6B    Ly6b 15 
Ly-6C    Ly6c 15 
Ly-6D   ThB, Ly-61 Ly6d 15 
Ly-6E   TSA-1, Sca-2, Ly-67 Ly6e 15 
Ly-6F    Ly6f 15 
Ly-6G    Ly6g 15 
Ly-7    Ly7 16 
Ly-8    Ly8 Unknown 
Ly-9    Ly9 
Ly-10 Withdrawn CD98  CD98 19 
Ly-11    Ly11 
Ly-12 Withdrawn CD5 Allele of Ly-1 Cd5 19 
Ly-13    Ly13 Unknown 
Ly-14    Ly14 
Ly-15 Withdrawn CD11a LFA-1 Itgal 
Ly-16   Ly-18 Ly16 12 
Ly-17 Withdrawn CD16/32  Fcgr2b 
Ly-18   Ly-m18 Ly18 12 
Ly-19 Withdrawn CD72 Ly-m19, Lyb-2 Cd72 
Ly-20   Ly-22a Ly20 
Ly-21 Withdrawn CD11a Allele of Ly-15, LFA-1 Itgal 
Ly-22 Withdrawn CD62L L-selectin, MEL-14 Sell 
Ly-23    Ly23 
Ly-24 Withdrawn CD44 Pgp-1 CD44 
Ly-25    Ly25 
Ly-26    Ly26 Unknown 
Ly-27 Withdrawn  Ly-6 Ly6 15 
Ly-28    Ly28 13 
Ly-29    Ly29 
Ly-30    Ly30 Unknown 
Ly-31    Ly31 
Ly-32 Withdrawn CD72 Lyb-2 Cd72 
Ly-33    Ly33 
Ly-34    Ly34 13 
Ly-35 Withdrawn CD8a Allele of Ly-2 Cd8a 
Ly-36    Ly36 
Ly-37 Withdrawn CD2  Cd2 
Ly-38 Withdrawn CD1d  Cd1d 
Ly-39    Ly39 17 
Ly-40 Withdrawn CD11b Mac-1 Itgam Unknown 
Ly-41    Npps 10 
Ly-42 Withdrawn CD23 FcεRIIa Fcer2a 
Ly-43 Withdrawn CD25 IL-2Ra IL2ra 
Ly-44 Withdrawn CD20  Cd20 19 
Ly-45    Ly45 Unknown 
Ly-46    Ly46 Unknown 
Ly-47 Withdrawn CD54 ICAM-1 Icam1 
Ly-48 Withdrawn CD43 leukosialin Spn 
Ly-49A Withdrawn  A1 Klra1 
Ly-49B Withdrawn   Klra2 
Ly-49C Withdrawn  5E 6 Klra3 
Ly-49D Withdrawn   Klra4 
Ly-49E Withdrawn   Klra5 
Ly-49F Withdrawn   Klra6 
Ly-49G Withdrawn  LGL-1 Klra7 
Ly-49H Withdrawn   Klra8 
Ly-49I Withdrawn   Klra9 
Ly-50   FcεRI, high affinity Fcer1g 
Ly-51   6C3/BP-1 Enpep 
Ly-52 Withdrawn CD24a HSA Cd24a 10 
Ly-53 Withdrawn CD80 B7-1 Cd80 16 
Ly-54 Withdrawn CD79a mb-1, lgα Cd79a 
Ly-55 Withdrawn CD161 NKR-P1A Klrb1 
Ly-56 Withdrawn CD152 CTLA-4 Cd152 
Ly-57   Lyw-57 Ly57 19 
Ly-58 Withdrawn CD86 B7-2 CD86 16 
Ly-59 Withdrawn  NK1.1, NKR-P1C Klrb3 
Ly-60 Withdrawn CD102 ICAM-2 Icam2 11 
LyStatusCurrent CDPrevious DesignationGene SymbolChromosome
Ly-1 Withdrawn CD5 Ly-35 Cd5 19 
Ly-2 Withdrawn Cd8a  Cd8a 
Ly-3 Withdrawn CD8b  CD8b 
Ly-4 Withdrawn CD4  CD4 
Ly-5 Withdrawn CD45  Ptprc 
Ly-6A   TAP, Sca-1, Ly-6D Ly6a 15 
Ly-6B    Ly6b 15 
Ly-6C    Ly6c 15 
Ly-6D   ThB, Ly-61 Ly6d 15 
Ly-6E   TSA-1, Sca-2, Ly-67 Ly6e 15 
Ly-6F    Ly6f 15 
Ly-6G    Ly6g 15 
Ly-7    Ly7 16 
Ly-8    Ly8 Unknown 
Ly-9    Ly9 
Ly-10 Withdrawn CD98  CD98 19 
Ly-11    Ly11 
Ly-12 Withdrawn CD5 Allele of Ly-1 Cd5 19 
Ly-13    Ly13 Unknown 
Ly-14    Ly14 
Ly-15 Withdrawn CD11a LFA-1 Itgal 
Ly-16   Ly-18 Ly16 12 
Ly-17 Withdrawn CD16/32  Fcgr2b 
Ly-18   Ly-m18 Ly18 12 
Ly-19 Withdrawn CD72 Ly-m19, Lyb-2 Cd72 
Ly-20   Ly-22a Ly20 
Ly-21 Withdrawn CD11a Allele of Ly-15, LFA-1 Itgal 
Ly-22 Withdrawn CD62L L-selectin, MEL-14 Sell 
Ly-23    Ly23 
Ly-24 Withdrawn CD44 Pgp-1 CD44 
Ly-25    Ly25 
Ly-26    Ly26 Unknown 
Ly-27 Withdrawn  Ly-6 Ly6 15 
Ly-28    Ly28 13 
Ly-29    Ly29 
Ly-30    Ly30 Unknown 
Ly-31    Ly31 
Ly-32 Withdrawn CD72 Lyb-2 Cd72 
Ly-33    Ly33 
Ly-34    Ly34 13 
Ly-35 Withdrawn CD8a Allele of Ly-2 Cd8a 
Ly-36    Ly36 
Ly-37 Withdrawn CD2  Cd2 
Ly-38 Withdrawn CD1d  Cd1d 
Ly-39    Ly39 17 
Ly-40 Withdrawn CD11b Mac-1 Itgam Unknown 
Ly-41    Npps 10 
Ly-42 Withdrawn CD23 FcεRIIa Fcer2a 
Ly-43 Withdrawn CD25 IL-2Ra IL2ra 
Ly-44 Withdrawn CD20  Cd20 19 
Ly-45    Ly45 Unknown 
Ly-46    Ly46 Unknown 
Ly-47 Withdrawn CD54 ICAM-1 Icam1 
Ly-48 Withdrawn CD43 leukosialin Spn 
Ly-49A Withdrawn  A1 Klra1 
Ly-49B Withdrawn   Klra2 
Ly-49C Withdrawn  5E 6 Klra3 
Ly-49D Withdrawn   Klra4 
Ly-49E Withdrawn   Klra5 
Ly-49F Withdrawn   Klra6 
Ly-49G Withdrawn  LGL-1 Klra7 
Ly-49H Withdrawn   Klra8 
Ly-49I Withdrawn   Klra9 
Ly-50   FcεRI, high affinity Fcer1g 
Ly-51   6C3/BP-1 Enpep 
Ly-52 Withdrawn CD24a HSA Cd24a 10 
Ly-53 Withdrawn CD80 B7-1 Cd80 16 
Ly-54 Withdrawn CD79a mb-1, lgα Cd79a 
Ly-55 Withdrawn CD161 NKR-P1A Klrb1 
Ly-56 Withdrawn CD152 CTLA-4 Cd152 
Ly-57   Lyw-57 Ly57 19 
Ly-58 Withdrawn CD86 B7-2 CD86 16 
Ly-59 Withdrawn  NK1.1, NKR-P1C Klrb3 
Ly-60 Withdrawn CD102 ICAM-2 Icam2 11 
a

References for all Ly molecules have been entered into the Mouse Genome Database (http://www.informatics.jax.org).

Multiple studies, including biochemical analysis, cloning, functional, and immunologic assays, are necessary to confirm homologues between species. In addition to differences in DNA sequence, evolutionary divergence between mice and humans may also be manifested in Ag distribution. Notable examples include CD2, CD90 (Thy-1), and perhaps CD34. Table II reflects several novel mouse CD homologues that have been identified via cloning, Abs, or protein probes, such as the use of ligand-Ig fusion proteins.

Table II.

Mouse CD moleculesa

CD/Other nameMouse Gene SymbolChromosomeComments
CD1d Cd1d Associates with β2m, Ag presentation, ligand for NK1+ T cells 
CD2/LFA-2 Cd2 Ig superfamily, CD49 counter-receptor, adhesion, T cell activation 
CD3d Cd3d TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD3e Cd3e TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD3g Cd3g TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD3z Cd3z TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD4/L3T4/Ly-4 Cd4 TCR coreceptor, MHC class II receptor, signal transduction 
CD5/Ly-1 Cd5 19 CD72 counter-receptor, regulation of cellular activation 
CD6 Cd6 19 T cell activation, thymic development, CD166 counterreceptor 
CD7 Cd7 11 Early T cell marker (human) 
CD8a/Ly-2 Cd8a TCR coreceptor, MHC class I receptor, signal transduction 
CD8b/Ly-3 Cd8b TCR coreceptor, MHC class I receptor, signal transduction 
CD9 Cd9 TM4 superfamily, T cell costimulation 
CD10/CALLA, NEP Mme Ectoenzyme, neutral endopeptidase, B cell development 
CD11a/Ly-15, LFA-1 α-chain Itgal Associates with CD18, ICAM-1, and ICAM-2 counterreceptor 
CD11b/Ly-40, Mac-1 α-chain Itgam Unknown Associates with CD18, fibrinogen, and C3bi counterreceptor 
CD11c/integrin aX Itgax Unknown Associates with CD18 
CD12 Not defined   
CD13 Lap1 Type II transmembrane protein, aminopeptidase N 
CD14 Cd14 18 GPI-linked protein, LPS/LBP complex receptor 
CD15 Not defined  Carbohydrate determinant: Lewis X (human); binds CD62E, CD62L, CD62P 
CD16/FcγR III Fcgr3 Low-affinity binding to IgG, ADCC 
CD17 Not defined  Carbohydrate determinant: lactosylceramide (human) 
CD18/integrin β2 Itgb2 10 Adhesion, associates with CD11a, CD11b, CD11c 
CD19 Cd19 BCR co-receptor, signal transduction, pan B marker 
CD20/Ly-44 Cd20 19 B cell activation/differentiation, Type III transmembrane protein 
CD21/complement receptor-2 Cr2 Cd 3 receptor, complex with BCR 
CD22/Lyb-8 Cd22 Adhesion, B cell activation 
CD23/Ly-42 Fcer2a Low-affinity receptor for IgE 
CD24a/HSA Cd24a 10 T cell costimulation, adhesion, CD62P counterreceptor 
CD24b Cd24b  
CD24c Cd24c 14  
CD25/p55, IL-2Rα chain Il2ra Low-affinity binding to IL-2 by itself, associates with CD122 and CD132, lymphocyte differentiation and activation 
CD26/THAM Dpp4 Ectoenzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase, cellular activation 
CD27 Cd27 TNFR superfamily, T cell costimulation, CD70 counterreceptor 
CD28 Cd28 T cell costimulation, CD80 and CD86 counterreceptor 
CD29/integrin β1, gplla Itgb1 Unknown VLAb, associates with CD49a, b, c, d, e, or f, adhesion 
CD30/Ki Cd30 TNFR superfamily, T cell activation/regulation 
CD31/PECAM-1 Pecam Adhesion, signal transduction; counterreceptor to CD38 
CD32/Ly-17/Fcg receptor II Fcgr2 Low-affinity binding to IgG, ADCC 
CD33 Cd33  
CD34 Cd34 Multiple isoforms, CD62L counterreceptor (90 kD), hemopoiesis (human) 
CD35/complement receptor-1 Cr1 C3b receptor, phagocytosis 
CD36 Cd36 Thrombospondin receptor; oxidixed LDL receptor; collagen receptor 
CD37 Cd37  
CD38 Cd38 Ectoenzyme, cyclase/hydrolase, cellular activation, CD31 counterreceptor (human) 
CD39 Not defined   
CD40 Cd40 TNFR superfamily, B cell activation/differentiation/survival 
   CD154 (gp39) counterreceptor 
CD41/integrin αllb Itga2b 11 Associates with integrin β3, adhesion; platelet marker 
CD42 Not defined   
CD43/leukosialin, Ly-48 Spn Two isoforms; adhesion, signal transduction, binding to CD54 
CD44/Pgp-1, Ly-24 Cd44 Receptor for hyaluronate, adhesion, homing, metastasis, T cell activation, marker for memory T cells 
CD45/LCA, Ly-5 Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase pan-leukocyte marker 
CD45RA Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase restricted expression, exon A dependent 
CD45RB Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase restricted expression, exon B dependent 
CD45RC Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase restricted expression, exon C dependent 
CD45RO Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase, marker for naive T cells; restricted expression 
CD45R/B220 Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase, marker for B cells and activated T and NK (LAK) cells 
CD46 Not defined  Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) 
CD47/integrin-associated protein (IAP) Itgp Unknown Activation and extravasation of PMN; Ig superfamily 
CD48/Sgp-60, BCM-1, BLAST-1 Cd48 GPI-linked protein, T cell costimulation, adhesion, CD2 counterreceptor 
CD49a/integrin α1 Itga1 13 Associates with CD29, laminin/collagen receptor 
CD49b/integrin α2 Itga2 13 Associates with CD29, laminin/collagen/fibronectin receptor 
CD49c/integrin α3 Itga3 11 Associates with CD29, laminin/collagen/fibronectin receptor 
CD/Other nameMouse Gene SymbolChromosomeComments
CD1d Cd1d Associates with β2m, Ag presentation, ligand for NK1+ T cells 
CD2/LFA-2 Cd2 Ig superfamily, CD49 counter-receptor, adhesion, T cell activation 
CD3d Cd3d TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD3e Cd3e TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD3g Cd3g TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD3z Cd3z TCR subunit, receptor complex assembly/traffic, signal transduction 
CD4/L3T4/Ly-4 Cd4 TCR coreceptor, MHC class II receptor, signal transduction 
CD5/Ly-1 Cd5 19 CD72 counter-receptor, regulation of cellular activation 
CD6 Cd6 19 T cell activation, thymic development, CD166 counterreceptor 
CD7 Cd7 11 Early T cell marker (human) 
CD8a/Ly-2 Cd8a TCR coreceptor, MHC class I receptor, signal transduction 
CD8b/Ly-3 Cd8b TCR coreceptor, MHC class I receptor, signal transduction 
CD9 Cd9 TM4 superfamily, T cell costimulation 
CD10/CALLA, NEP Mme Ectoenzyme, neutral endopeptidase, B cell development 
CD11a/Ly-15, LFA-1 α-chain Itgal Associates with CD18, ICAM-1, and ICAM-2 counterreceptor 
CD11b/Ly-40, Mac-1 α-chain Itgam Unknown Associates with CD18, fibrinogen, and C3bi counterreceptor 
CD11c/integrin aX Itgax Unknown Associates with CD18 
CD12 Not defined   
CD13 Lap1 Type II transmembrane protein, aminopeptidase N 
CD14 Cd14 18 GPI-linked protein, LPS/LBP complex receptor 
CD15 Not defined  Carbohydrate determinant: Lewis X (human); binds CD62E, CD62L, CD62P 
CD16/FcγR III Fcgr3 Low-affinity binding to IgG, ADCC 
CD17 Not defined  Carbohydrate determinant: lactosylceramide (human) 
CD18/integrin β2 Itgb2 10 Adhesion, associates with CD11a, CD11b, CD11c 
CD19 Cd19 BCR co-receptor, signal transduction, pan B marker 
CD20/Ly-44 Cd20 19 B cell activation/differentiation, Type III transmembrane protein 
CD21/complement receptor-2 Cr2 Cd 3 receptor, complex with BCR 
CD22/Lyb-8 Cd22 Adhesion, B cell activation 
CD23/Ly-42 Fcer2a Low-affinity receptor for IgE 
CD24a/HSA Cd24a 10 T cell costimulation, adhesion, CD62P counterreceptor 
CD24b Cd24b  
CD24c Cd24c 14  
CD25/p55, IL-2Rα chain Il2ra Low-affinity binding to IL-2 by itself, associates with CD122 and CD132, lymphocyte differentiation and activation 
CD26/THAM Dpp4 Ectoenzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase, cellular activation 
CD27 Cd27 TNFR superfamily, T cell costimulation, CD70 counterreceptor 
CD28 Cd28 T cell costimulation, CD80 and CD86 counterreceptor 
CD29/integrin β1, gplla Itgb1 Unknown VLAb, associates with CD49a, b, c, d, e, or f, adhesion 
CD30/Ki Cd30 TNFR superfamily, T cell activation/regulation 
CD31/PECAM-1 Pecam Adhesion, signal transduction; counterreceptor to CD38 
CD32/Ly-17/Fcg receptor II Fcgr2 Low-affinity binding to IgG, ADCC 
CD33 Cd33  
CD34 Cd34 Multiple isoforms, CD62L counterreceptor (90 kD), hemopoiesis (human) 
CD35/complement receptor-1 Cr1 C3b receptor, phagocytosis 
CD36 Cd36 Thrombospondin receptor; oxidixed LDL receptor; collagen receptor 
CD37 Cd37  
CD38 Cd38 Ectoenzyme, cyclase/hydrolase, cellular activation, CD31 counterreceptor (human) 
CD39 Not defined   
CD40 Cd40 TNFR superfamily, B cell activation/differentiation/survival 
   CD154 (gp39) counterreceptor 
CD41/integrin αllb Itga2b 11 Associates with integrin β3, adhesion; platelet marker 
CD42 Not defined   
CD43/leukosialin, Ly-48 Spn Two isoforms; adhesion, signal transduction, binding to CD54 
CD44/Pgp-1, Ly-24 Cd44 Receptor for hyaluronate, adhesion, homing, metastasis, T cell activation, marker for memory T cells 
CD45/LCA, Ly-5 Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase pan-leukocyte marker 
CD45RA Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase restricted expression, exon A dependent 
CD45RB Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase restricted expression, exon B dependent 
CD45RC Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase restricted expression, exon C dependent 
CD45RO Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase, marker for naive T cells; restricted expression 
CD45R/B220 Ptprc Cellular differentiation/activation, tyrosine phosphatase, marker for B cells and activated T and NK (LAK) cells 
CD46 Not defined  Membrane cofactor protein (MCP) 
CD47/integrin-associated protein (IAP) Itgp Unknown Activation and extravasation of PMN; Ig superfamily 
CD48/Sgp-60, BCM-1, BLAST-1 Cd48 GPI-linked protein, T cell costimulation, adhesion, CD2 counterreceptor 
CD49a/integrin α1 Itga1 13 Associates with CD29, laminin/collagen receptor 
CD49b/integrin α2 Itga2 13 Associates with CD29, laminin/collagen/fibronectin receptor 
CD49c/integrin α3 Itga3 11 Associates with CD29, laminin/collagen/fibronectin receptor 
a

CD1-CD130 are cited in ref. 4; references for CD131–CD166 have been entered into the Mouse Genome Database (http://www.informatics.jax.org).

Some molecules are particularly useful as phenotyping markers for different cell subpopulations. The large number of well-characterized mAbs has facilitated identifying cell types based on their surface phenotypes. For additional reference, a review of mAbs to human and murine CD Ags has been made available (4). It should be noted that only a few Ags have restricted lineage distributions; most cell surface molecules exhibit a broader distribution than initially reported. Multiparameter immunoanalysis, therefore, is required to isolate different cell types. Below is a summary of relevant Ags associated with cell lineages.

In the mouse, one of the most commonly used pan-B cell markers is identified by the mAb RA3-6B2 (CD45R/B220); however, this epitope is also expressed on activated T and NK cells (5) and NK cell progenitors (6). The CD19 Ag appears to be more restricted to the B cell lineage and is not expressed by NK progenitor cells (6) or by LAK cells (N. Alaverdi, unpublished observation). Hence, Abs to mouse CD19 may be used more reliably to identify B cells. Although the mouse CD20 gene has been cloned (7), no mAb has been reported. While surface IgM and IgD are expressed by both conventional (B-2) and unconventional (B-1) B cells, the expression of CD23 (8), CD5, and CD11b (9) can be used to distinguish these subsets. Other markers identifying the B cell lineage and its subsets include CD138 (Syndecan-1) (10), CD157 (BP-3) (11, 12), CD35 and CD21 (13), CD40 (14), CD72 (15), CD22 (16), Ly-68 (AA4.1) (17), and Ly-78 (RP-105) (18, 19). CD86 (B7-2) and CD80 (B7-1), although broadly expressed on APCs other than B cells, are useful markers for activated B cells.

While mAbs to Thy-1 (CD90) and TCR complex Ags have commonly been used as pan-T cell markers in mice, Thy-1 is not restricted to T cells, while CD3e expression is correlated with T cell maturation, similar to CD27 (20) and CD28 (21). In humans, CD2, CD5, and CD7 are preferred pan-T cell markers, although they are also expressed on subsets of other cell types (3). The mouse CD7 gene has been cloned recently (22); its Ag distribution remains to be determined. The CD8 and CD4 molecules are generally used for identification of mainstream helper and cytotoxic T cells, respectively. A third class of T cells with both helper and cytotoxic properties has been identified using the CD161c (NK1.1, previously Ly-59 or NKR-P1C) (23). Reported memory T cell markers include CD44 (24), CD62L (25), and CD45RB (26). Activated T cell markers include CD26, CD27, CD30, CDw137 (4-1BB), CD152 (CTLA-4), CD154 (gp39), CD134 (OX-40), CD95L (Fas ligand), CD45R/B220, and Ly-6E (TSA, sca-2) (27).

The official mouse and human genetic nomenclature for a substantial number of the surface molecules expressed by NK cells will, most likely, soon be changed by consensus of those expert in the field. The provisional symbol for both the mouse and human nomenclature relating to the lectin-like molecules would be Klr, for killer cell lectin-like receptor. This will be followed by the letters a through e to designate five distinct families and then a number to specify each member of that family: Klra# will be used for the Ly49 family, Klrb# for the NKR-P1 family, Klrc# for the NKG2 family, klrd# for CD94 and related genes, and klre# for the MKAP family. The Klra and Klre families have no human members to date.

The CD161c (NK1.1 Ly-59, NKR-P1C) Ag is the most widely used pan-NK marker in mice. Since its expression is restricted to CE, New Zealand Black, and C57BL/6-related strains, many commonly used strains do not express the Ag. In addition, like many NK cell markers, CD161c is also expressed on a subset of T cells (23). Although CD56 (NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule)) is used as the human NK cell marker, several existing Abs to mouse CD56 did not react with mouse NK cells (3); however, a novel mAb, DX5, exhibits similar reactivity to anti-CD161c Ab but reacts with NK cells in all strains of mice tested, including NK1.1-negative strains (L. Lanier, unpublished observation). CD122 (IL-2R β-chain), which is constitutively expressed on NK cells and a subset of T cells, can also be used to identify NK cells (V. Kumar, unpublished observation). A multitude of genes encoding NK receptors, such as the newly cloned mouse gene CD94 (L. Lanier, unpublished observation), CD161a, and the Klra family members, have been characterized (28). The MHC class I ligands of these NK receptors and their inhibitory or activating functions are being elucidated. To date, no mouse homologues of the killing inhibitory receptor (KIR) and killing-activating receptor (KAR) Ig superfamily members have been discovered, although two mouse genes related to human KIR, gp49A and gp49B (B1 and B2), have been cloned from mouse mast cells (29). The available data suggest that gp49 is unlikely to be the mouse equivalent of human KIR (29). It is likely that Klra family members serve as KIR and KAR functional equivalents in mice (28).

The anti-Ly-71 (F4/80) mAb has been used extensively in determining the distribution and function of mouse tissue macrophages (30), although eosinophils and dendritic cells (DC) have been reported to react with this mAb (31, 32). To date, no human homologue of Ly-71 (F4/80) has been reported. CD11b (Mac-1), another commonly used marker for the monocyte/macrophage lineage, is expressed on NK cells, granulocytes, a T cell subset, and peritoneal B-1 B cells. CD14 is widely perceived as the best marker for the human macrophage/monocyte population. In mice, the level of CD14, as recognized by an anti-CD14 mAb, rmC5–3, was low or undetectable on resting blood monocytes. It remains to be determined whether other newly generated Abs to mouse CD14 will recognize a distribution similar to that in humans. Other mAbs used for identification of macrophage/monocyte subsets are MOMA-1, MOMA-2 (33), Mac-2, Mac-3, and the macrophage scavenger receptor.

DC display surface phenotype heterogeneity depending on their microenvironment and state of activation. Their ill-defined surface phenotypes in addition to their low numbers in tissues have made the isolation of these cells rather cumbersome. DC express many adhesion and costimulatory molecules and myeloid lineage markers (32). Although several Ags have been reported to be expressed specifically by DC, mAb to these Ags often react with other cell types or only recognize subsets of DC. For separation of DC from other cell types, multicolor analysis or prior enrichment protocols such as plastic adherence methods are necessary. The Ly-75 (DEC-205) Ag (34) and CD11c (35) have proved to be more restricted markers for DC, although they may not be expressed on all DC, and they may also be expressed on other cell types. In humans, CD83 and the Ag identified by mAb CRMF-44 have recently been identified as novel markers for DC (3, 36). Other Abs useful for the identification of DCs include Ly-79 (33D1) (37), 4F7 (38), and Ly-74 (Ep-CAM, gp40), a homologue of human epithelial growth factor (39).

Expression of Ly-6G is reported to be primarily limited to granulocytes; mAbs specific to this molecule, also known as the Gr-1 Ag, have been used successfully to separate mouse granulocyte lineage cells (40).

The Ly-76 Ag detected by the mAb TER-119 has been used to identify cells of the erythroid lineage (41, 42).

MECA-32 appears to be most restricted marker for endothelium (43). Other Ags expressed by endothelial cells include CD106 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1), CD31, CD34, Ly-73 (Flk-1), and CD105. CD62E is expressed by activated endothelial cells (27, 44).

CD41 (integrin αIIb) is the best marker for platelets; other surface proteins expressed by platelets include CD61 (integrin β3) (45) and CD9 (46). Activated platelets express CD62P (27).

The classic method for identifying mouse stem/pluripotent cells in total bone marrow cells has included the use of a combination of Abs; cells negative for lineage markers CD4, CD8, CD11b (Mac-1), CD45/B220, Ly-6G (Gr-1), and Ly-76 (Ter-119) and positive for CD117 (c-kit), and Ly-6A (Sca-1), which are greatly enriched for capacity to reconstitute hemopoiesis (47, 48). Polyclonal and monoclonal Abs to mouse CD34 (49, 50) have demonstrated that CD34 is expressed on a small subset of bone marrow cells. In humans, the stem cell populations are identified by the expression of CD34. A recent report with one anti-mouse CD34 mAb, 49E8 (RAM34), however, suggests that primitive hemopoietic stem cells capable of long term repopulation are contained in the CD34-negative/low fraction, whereas the CD34-positive cells are committed progenitor cells lacking self-renewal capability (51). Other relevant Ags expressed by progenitor cells include CD25, CD90 (Thy-1), ER-MP12 (52), CD135 (Flk-2/Flt-3) (53), Ly-6E (TSA-1, Sca-2) (54), Ly-51 (BP-1, 6C3), and CD157 (BP-3).

An important feature of cellular activation is the de novo expression of surface molecules or up-regulation of the Ags expressed constitutively. The mode of stimulation, kinetics, and expression pattern of any given marker may imply its role in the immune response. Surface molecules, including CD71 (transferrin receptor), CD98 (4F2), and CD69, are expressed by a wide range of activated cell types, reflecting their general role in cellular proliferation. CD69 is useful as a lymphocyte activation marker because of its expression in the very early stage of activation (55). It is noteworthy that although some markers were initially defined to be restricted to specific types of activated cells, their distributions were subsequently found to be more general. For example, CD25 (IL-2R α-chain), often used as a T cell activation marker, is present on activated T, B, and NK cells and is expressed during ontogeny on pre-B and pre-T cells. CD80 and CD86, initially reported as B cell activation markers, are constitutively expressed by macrophages, DCs, and fibroblasts and can be induced on activated T cells (56, 57). Further, sensitivity of the detection method may be a limiting factor when studying low density Ags. Other molecules reported to be expressed by activated lymphocytes include CD152 (CTLA-4), CDw137 (4-1BB), CD134 (OX-40), DATK44 Ag (TABS), Ly-77 (GL7), CD45R (B220), CD30, CD95 ligand, CD43, Ly-6 family members, CD106, cytokine receptors, and the family of very late Ag adhesion molecules.

In this communication, we provide an update on mouse cell surface molecules, including lists of surface markers that, in combination with multiparameter flow cytometric analysis, can be used to trace cell lineages and activation state. Several novel markers mentioned here may prove useful in mouse immunology research. Most of the reported mAbs and their respective Ags are compiled in the CD and Ly charts. Undoubtedly, many molecules have not been included here. Scientists are encouraged to contact the authors and the Committee on Standardized Genetic Nomenclature for Mice to submit novel molecules for their inclusion in the future reports. In addition to this communication, information on the mouse genome and genetic markers is available on the worldwide web. The Mouse Genome Database can be accessed via http://www.informatics.jax.org. Information on germ-line disruptions of Ly/CD-encoding loci can be obtained at www.bioscience.org/knockout/knochome.htm or TBASE at www.gdb.org/dan/tbase.html.

Table 1A.

Mouse Ly moleculesa

LyStatusCurrent CDPrevious DesignationGene SymbolChromosome
Ly-61 Withdrawn  ThB Ly6d 15 
Ly-62 Withdrawn CD154 gp39 Cd401 
Ly-63 Withdrawn CD136 4-1BB Cd136 
Ly-63L   4-1BB ligand Ly631 17 
Ly-64   14/A10 Ly64 13 
Ly-65 Withdrawn CD157 BP-3 Bp3 
Ly-66   LAG3 Lag3 
Ly-67 Withdrawn  TSA-1, Sca-2 Ly6e 15 
Ly-68   AA4.1 Ly68 Unknown 
Ly-69   Ly-69 Itgb7 15 
Ly-70 Withdrawn CD134 OX-40 Txgp1 
Ly-70L   OX-40L Txgp1l 
Ly-71   F4/80 Emr1 17 
Ly-72 Withdrawn CD135 Flk-2/Flt3 Flt3 
Ly-72L   Flt3 L Flt3l 
Ly-73   Flk-1 Flk1 
Ly-74   Ep-CAM Ly74 Unknown 
Ly-75   DEC-205 Ly75 Unknown 
Ly-76   TER-119 Ly76 Unknown 
Ly-77   GL7 Ly77 Unknown 
Ly-78   RP-105 Ly78 Unknown 
Ly-79   33D1 Ly79 Unknown 
Ly-80    Mir Unknown 
Ly-81    Trail Unknown 
Lyb-2 Withdrawn CD72 Ly32 CD72 
Lyb-3    Lyb3 Unknown 
Lyb-4    Lyb4 
Lyb-5    Lyb5 Unknown 
Lyb-6    Lyb6 
Lyb-7    Lyb7 12 
Lyb-8 Withdrawn CD22  Cd22 
LyStatusCurrent CDPrevious DesignationGene SymbolChromosome
Ly-61 Withdrawn  ThB Ly6d 15 
Ly-62 Withdrawn CD154 gp39 Cd401 
Ly-63 Withdrawn CD136 4-1BB Cd136 
Ly-63L   4-1BB ligand Ly631 17 
Ly-64   14/A10 Ly64 13 
Ly-65 Withdrawn CD157 BP-3 Bp3 
Ly-66   LAG3 Lag3 
Ly-67 Withdrawn  TSA-1, Sca-2 Ly6e 15 
Ly-68   AA4.1 Ly68 Unknown 
Ly-69   Ly-69 Itgb7 15 
Ly-70 Withdrawn CD134 OX-40 Txgp1 
Ly-70L   OX-40L Txgp1l 
Ly-71   F4/80 Emr1 17 
Ly-72 Withdrawn CD135 Flk-2/Flt3 Flt3 
Ly-72L   Flt3 L Flt3l 
Ly-73   Flk-1 Flk1 
Ly-74   Ep-CAM Ly74 Unknown 
Ly-75   DEC-205 Ly75 Unknown 
Ly-76   TER-119 Ly76 Unknown 
Ly-77   GL7 Ly77 Unknown 
Ly-78   RP-105 Ly78 Unknown 
Ly-79   33D1 Ly79 Unknown 
Ly-80    Mir Unknown 
Ly-81    Trail Unknown 
Lyb-2 Withdrawn CD72 Ly32 CD72 
Lyb-3    Lyb3 Unknown 
Lyb-4    Lyb4 
Lyb-5    Lyb5 Unknown 
Lyb-6    Lyb6 
Lyb-7    Lyb7 12 
Lyb-8 Withdrawn CD22  Cd22 
a

References for all Ly molecules have been entered into the Mouse Genome Database (http://www.informatics.jax.org).

Table 2A.

Mouse CD moleculesa

CD/Other nameMouse Gene SymbolChromosomeComments
CD49d/integrin α4 Itga4 Associates with CD29 
CD49e/integrin α5 Itga5 15 Associates with CD29, fibronectin/laminin receptor 
CD49f/integrin α6 Itga6 Associates with CD29, laminin receptor 
CD50/ICAM-3 Icam3 Unknown Adhesion/signaling 
CD51/integrin aV Itgav Associates with β integrins, vitronectin and fibronectin receptor 
CD52 Not defined  Campath (human) 
CD53 Cd53  
CD54/ICAM-1, Ly-47 Icam1 Adhesion, T cell costimulation, CD11a, CD11b, and CD43 counterreceptor 
CD55 Daf1  
CD56/NCAM-1 Ncam Adhesion, nervous system 
CD57 Not defined  HNK1 (human) 
CD58 Not defined  LFA-3 (human) 
CD59 Cd59  
CD60 Not defined   
CD61/integrin β3 Itgb3 11 Associates with CD41 and CD51, extracellular adhesion 
CD62E/E-selectin, ELAM Sele Adhesion, leukocyte rolling/migration, binds to sialyl Lewis X (CD15) 
CD62L/L-selectin, LECAM-1 Sell Adhseion, leukocyte rolling/migration, binds to sialyl Lewis X (CD15) CD34 counterreceptor 
CD62P/P-selectin, PADGEM Selp Adhesion, leukocyte rolling/migration, binds to CD15 and CD24 
CD63 Cd63 18 Platelet activation Ag (TM4 superfamily) 
CD64/FcγRI Fcgr1 High-affinity binding to IgG, ADCC 
CD65 Not defined   
   Ceremide dodecasaccharide (human) 
CD66 Not defined   
CD67   Withdrawn, now CD66b 
CD68/macrosialin Cd68 Unknown Type I transmembrane, lysosomal-associated protein 
CD69/very early activation Ag Cd69 Leukocyte activation; early lymphocyte activation marker 
CD70 Cd70  CD27 counter-receptor 
CD71/transferrin receptor Trfr Unknown Type II transmembrane protein, activation, iron metabolism 
CD72/Lyb-2 Cd72 Cd5 counter-receptor, B cell costimulation 
CD73 Nt5  Ecto-5′ nucleotidase; B and T cell subsets (human) 
CD74/invariant chain Ii 18 MCH class II folding/trafficking, Ag presentation 
CD75 Not defined   
CD76 Not defined   
CD77 Not defined   
CD78 Not defined   
CD79a/Igα Cd79a Ig superfamily, signal transduction 
CD79b/Igβ Cd79b Unknown Ig superfamily, signal transduction 
CD80/B7-1 Cd80 16 B cell costimulation, T/B interaction CD28 and CE152 counterreceptor 
CD81/TAPA-1 CD81 TM4 superfamily, signal transduction, T cell costimulation 
CD82/KAI1 Cd82 TM4 superfamily, signal transduction, T cell costimulation 
CD83 Cd83 Unknown Marker for dendritic and activated T and B (human; mouse cloned, no mAb) 
CD84 Not defined   
CD85 Not defined   
CD86/B7-2 Cd86 16 B cell costimulation, T/B interactions, CD28 and CD152 counterreceptor 
CD87 Not defined   
CD88 Not defined  C5a receptor (human) 
CD89 Not defined  Receptor for IgA 
CD90/Thy-1 Thy1 GPI-linked transmembrane protein, signal transduction, T cell activation 
CD91/α2 macroglobulin receptor Lrp 15 Lipoprotein metabolism 
CD92 Not defined   
CD93 Not defined   
CD94 Not defined  NK cell receptor for HLA-class I molecules 
CD95/Fas Fas 19 TNFR superfamily apoptosis, T cell costimulation, lpr mutation 
CD96 Not defined  Ig superfamily, T cell activation, increased late expression 
CD97 Not defined   
CD98/4F2, Ly-10 Cd98 19 Cellular activation, calcium flux 
CD99 Not defined   
CD100 Not defined   
CD101 Not defined  V7 glycoprotein, Ig superfamily, CD3-dependent T cell activation (human) 
CD102/ICAM-2 Icam2 11 Ig superfamily, adhesion to CD11a 
CD103/integrin αIEL Itgae Unknown Associates with integrin β7, adhesion 
CD104/integrin β4 Itgb4 11 Associates with integrin α6, adhesion 
CD105/endoglin Eng Adhesion, ligand for TGF-β 
CD106/VCAM-1 Vcam1 Signaling, adhesion to CD49d/CD29 (VLA-4) 
CD107a/LAMP-1 Lamp1 Lysosomal-associated membrane protein, adhesion/metastasis 
CD107b/LAMP-2 Lamp2 Lysosomal-associated membrane protein, adhesion/metastasis 
CDw108 Not defined   
CDw109   Sialomucin 
CD110 Reserved   
CD111 Reserved   
CD112 Reserved   
CD113 Reserved   
CD114 Not defined   
CD/Other nameMouse Gene SymbolChromosomeComments
CD49d/integrin α4 Itga4 Associates with CD29 
CD49e/integrin α5 Itga5 15 Associates with CD29, fibronectin/laminin receptor 
CD49f/integrin α6 Itga6 Associates with CD29, laminin receptor 
CD50/ICAM-3 Icam3 Unknown Adhesion/signaling 
CD51/integrin aV Itgav Associates with β integrins, vitronectin and fibronectin receptor 
CD52 Not defined  Campath (human) 
CD53 Cd53  
CD54/ICAM-1, Ly-47 Icam1 Adhesion, T cell costimulation, CD11a, CD11b, and CD43 counterreceptor 
CD55 Daf1  
CD56/NCAM-1 Ncam Adhesion, nervous system 
CD57 Not defined  HNK1 (human) 
CD58 Not defined  LFA-3 (human) 
CD59 Cd59  
CD60 Not defined   
CD61/integrin β3 Itgb3 11 Associates with CD41 and CD51, extracellular adhesion 
CD62E/E-selectin, ELAM Sele Adhesion, leukocyte rolling/migration, binds to sialyl Lewis X (CD15) 
CD62L/L-selectin, LECAM-1 Sell Adhseion, leukocyte rolling/migration, binds to sialyl Lewis X (CD15) CD34 counterreceptor 
CD62P/P-selectin, PADGEM Selp Adhesion, leukocyte rolling/migration, binds to CD15 and CD24 
CD63 Cd63 18 Platelet activation Ag (TM4 superfamily) 
CD64/FcγRI Fcgr1 High-affinity binding to IgG, ADCC 
CD65 Not defined   
   Ceremide dodecasaccharide (human) 
CD66 Not defined   
CD67   Withdrawn, now CD66b 
CD68/macrosialin Cd68 Unknown Type I transmembrane, lysosomal-associated protein 
CD69/very early activation Ag Cd69 Leukocyte activation; early lymphocyte activation marker 
CD70 Cd70  CD27 counter-receptor 
CD71/transferrin receptor Trfr Unknown Type II transmembrane protein, activation, iron metabolism 
CD72/Lyb-2 Cd72 Cd5 counter-receptor, B cell costimulation 
CD73 Nt5  Ecto-5′ nucleotidase; B and T cell subsets (human) 
CD74/invariant chain Ii 18 MCH class II folding/trafficking, Ag presentation 
CD75 Not defined   
CD76 Not defined   
CD77 Not defined   
CD78 Not defined   
CD79a/Igα Cd79a Ig superfamily, signal transduction 
CD79b/Igβ Cd79b Unknown Ig superfamily, signal transduction 
CD80/B7-1 Cd80 16 B cell costimulation, T/B interaction CD28 and CE152 counterreceptor 
CD81/TAPA-1 CD81 TM4 superfamily, signal transduction, T cell costimulation 
CD82/KAI1 Cd82 TM4 superfamily, signal transduction, T cell costimulation 
CD83 Cd83 Unknown Marker for dendritic and activated T and B (human; mouse cloned, no mAb) 
CD84 Not defined   
CD85 Not defined   
CD86/B7-2 Cd86 16 B cell costimulation, T/B interactions, CD28 and CD152 counterreceptor 
CD87 Not defined   
CD88 Not defined  C5a receptor (human) 
CD89 Not defined  Receptor for IgA 
CD90/Thy-1 Thy1 GPI-linked transmembrane protein, signal transduction, T cell activation 
CD91/α2 macroglobulin receptor Lrp 15 Lipoprotein metabolism 
CD92 Not defined   
CD93 Not defined   
CD94 Not defined  NK cell receptor for HLA-class I molecules 
CD95/Fas Fas 19 TNFR superfamily apoptosis, T cell costimulation, lpr mutation 
CD96 Not defined  Ig superfamily, T cell activation, increased late expression 
CD97 Not defined   
CD98/4F2, Ly-10 Cd98 19 Cellular activation, calcium flux 
CD99 Not defined   
CD100 Not defined   
CD101 Not defined  V7 glycoprotein, Ig superfamily, CD3-dependent T cell activation (human) 
CD102/ICAM-2 Icam2 11 Ig superfamily, adhesion to CD11a 
CD103/integrin αIEL Itgae Unknown Associates with integrin β7, adhesion 
CD104/integrin β4 Itgb4 11 Associates with integrin α6, adhesion 
CD105/endoglin Eng Adhesion, ligand for TGF-β 
CD106/VCAM-1 Vcam1 Signaling, adhesion to CD49d/CD29 (VLA-4) 
CD107a/LAMP-1 Lamp1 Lysosomal-associated membrane protein, adhesion/metastasis 
CD107b/LAMP-2 Lamp2 Lysosomal-associated membrane protein, adhesion/metastasis 
CDw108 Not defined   
CDw109   Sialomucin 
CD110 Reserved   
CD111 Reserved   
CD112 Reserved   
CD113 Reserved   
CD114 Not defined   
a

CD1-CD130 are cited in ref. 4; references for CD131–CD166 have been entered into the Mouse Genome Database (http://www.informatics.jax.org).

Table 2B.

Mouse CD moleculesa

CD/Other nameMouse Gene SymbolChromosomeComments
CD115/M-CSFR, CSF-1R Csfmr 18 Tyrosine kinase receptor family, signal transduction, cell differentiation 
CD116 Csfgmra 19 Receptor for GM-CSF, associates with CDw131 
CD117/c-KIT, steel factor receptor Kit Tyrosine kinase receptor family, signal transduction, cell differentiation, 
CD118/IFN-αβ receptor Ifnar 16 Wr mutation 
   IFN-αβ receptor, signal transduction 
CD119/IFN-γ receptor Ifngr 1 13 High-affinity binding to IFN-γ, signal transduction 
CD120a/TNF receptor α-chain Tnfr1 Type I, TNFR superfamily, signal transduction, apoptosis 
CD120b/TNF receptor β-chain Thfr2 Type II, TNFR superfamily, signal transduction, apoptosis 
CD121a/IL-1 receptor α-chain Il1r1 Ig superfamily, IL-1 binding, signal transduction 
CD121b/IL-1 receptor β-chain IL1r2 Ig superfamily, IL-1 binding 
CD122/IL-2 receptor β-chain Il2rb 15 Associates with CD25 and CD132 for high-affinity binding to IL-2, signal transduction 
CD123/IL-3 receptor α-chain II3ra 14 Low-affinity binding to IL-3, associates with CDw131 for high-affinity binding 
CD124/IL-4 receptor α-chain Il4ra Associates with CD132 for high-affinity binding to IL-4 
CD125/IL-5 receptor α-chain Il5ra Low-affinity binding to IL-5, associates with CDw131 for high-affinity binding 
CD126/IL-6 receptor α-chain Il6ra Low-affinity binding to IL-6, associates with CD130 for high-affinity binding 
CD127/IL-7 receptor α-chain Il7ra 15 Associates with CD132 for high-affinity binding to IL-7 
CD128/IL-8 receptor α-chain Cmkar2 Binding to mouse MIP-2 
CD129 Reserved   
CD130/gp 130 Il6st Unknown Signal transduction, common β chain of IL-6R, IL-11R, LIFR, OSMR 
CDw131/common β-chain II3rb 1/II3rb2 15 Signal transduction, member of IL-3R, IL-5R, and GM-CSFR complexes 
CD132/common γ-chain Il2rg Signal transduction, member of IL-2R, IL-4R, IL-7R, IL-13R, and IL-15R complexes 
CD133 Reserved   
CD134/OX-40, Ly-70 Txgp2 TNFR superfamily, T cell costimulation 
CD135/Flk-1/flt3, Ly-72 Flt3 Tyrosine kinase receptor family myeloid and lymphoid progenitor development 
CD136/4-1BB, Ly-63 Cd136  TNFR superfamily, T cell costimulation 
CD137/MSPR, RON Not defined Receptor for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) (human) 
CD138/syndecan-1 Synd-1 12 B cell development/differentiation 
CD139 Not defined   
CD140a/PDGF-R α-chain Pdgfra Tyrosine kinase receptor family, binds to PDGF a and b, signal transduction 
CD140b/PDGF-R β-chain Pdgfrb 18 Tyrosine kinase receptor family, binds only to PDGF b, signal transduction 
CD141/thrombomodulin Thbd  
CD142 Not defined Unknown Tissue factor, receptor for cofactor VII (human) 
CD143 Ace 11 Angiotesin converting enzyme 
CD144/VE-cadherin Cdh5 Adhesion 
CDw145   Pan endothelial marker (defined by mAbs E036, E037) 
CD146/MUC 18/s-endo Not defined   
CD147/neurothelin, basigin Bsg 10 Ig superfamily, blood-brain barrier, expressed on activated leukocytes 
CD148/M4, M56 Not defined   
CD149/MEM-133 Not defined   
CDw 150/IPO-3; SLAM Not defined  Ig superfamily, T cell stimulation (human) 
CD151/PETA Not defined  TM4 family; signaling 
CD152/CTLA-4, Ly-56 Cd152 T cell activation/regulation, CD80 and CD86 counter-receptor 
CD153/CD30 ligand Cd153 TNF family, activated lymphocytes, CD30 counter-receptor 
CD154/CD40 ligand (gp39), Ly-62 Cd154 TNF family, T cell activation, transient expression 
CD155 Not defined  Poliovirus receptor (human) 
CD156/ADAM8 Cd156  
CD157/BST-1, Mo-5, Ly-65 Bp3 Ectoenzyme, B and T cell development 
CD158a/p58.1 Not defined  NK receptor (human) 
CD159b/p58.2 Not defined  NK receptor (human) 
CD160 Reserved   
CD161a Klrb1 NK cell activation/regulation; NKR-P1A 
CD161b    
CD161c Klrb3  Mouse NK1.1, pan NK marker; NKR-P1C 
CD162/PSGL-1 Cd162  P-selectin ligand protein one P11, P12 (human) 
CD163 Not defined   
CD164/MGC-24, A115, A25 Not defined   
    
CD165/Ad2/gp37 Not defined   
CD166/ALCAM Cd166  CD6 counter-receptor, activated leukocyte-cell adhesion molecule, thymic development, T/B interaction, nervous system (human) 
CD/Other nameMouse Gene SymbolChromosomeComments
CD115/M-CSFR, CSF-1R Csfmr 18 Tyrosine kinase receptor family, signal transduction, cell differentiation 
CD116 Csfgmra 19 Receptor for GM-CSF, associates with CDw131 
CD117/c-KIT, steel factor receptor Kit Tyrosine kinase receptor family, signal transduction, cell differentiation, 
CD118/IFN-αβ receptor Ifnar 16 Wr mutation 
   IFN-αβ receptor, signal transduction 
CD119/IFN-γ receptor Ifngr 1 13 High-affinity binding to IFN-γ, signal transduction 
CD120a/TNF receptor α-chain Tnfr1 Type I, TNFR superfamily, signal transduction, apoptosis 
CD120b/TNF receptor β-chain Thfr2 Type II, TNFR superfamily, signal transduction, apoptosis 
CD121a/IL-1 receptor α-chain Il1r1 Ig superfamily, IL-1 binding, signal transduction 
CD121b/IL-1 receptor β-chain IL1r2 Ig superfamily, IL-1 binding 
CD122/IL-2 receptor β-chain Il2rb 15 Associates with CD25 and CD132 for high-affinity binding to IL-2, signal transduction 
CD123/IL-3 receptor α-chain II3ra 14 Low-affinity binding to IL-3, associates with CDw131 for high-affinity binding 
CD124/IL-4 receptor α-chain Il4ra Associates with CD132 for high-affinity binding to IL-4 
CD125/IL-5 receptor α-chain Il5ra Low-affinity binding to IL-5, associates with CDw131 for high-affinity binding 
CD126/IL-6 receptor α-chain Il6ra Low-affinity binding to IL-6, associates with CD130 for high-affinity binding 
CD127/IL-7 receptor α-chain Il7ra 15 Associates with CD132 for high-affinity binding to IL-7 
CD128/IL-8 receptor α-chain Cmkar2 Binding to mouse MIP-2 
CD129 Reserved   
CD130/gp 130 Il6st Unknown Signal transduction, common β chain of IL-6R, IL-11R, LIFR, OSMR 
CDw131/common β-chain II3rb 1/II3rb2 15 Signal transduction, member of IL-3R, IL-5R, and GM-CSFR complexes 
CD132/common γ-chain Il2rg Signal transduction, member of IL-2R, IL-4R, IL-7R, IL-13R, and IL-15R complexes 
CD133 Reserved   
CD134/OX-40, Ly-70 Txgp2 TNFR superfamily, T cell costimulation 
CD135/Flk-1/flt3, Ly-72 Flt3 Tyrosine kinase receptor family myeloid and lymphoid progenitor development 
CD136/4-1BB, Ly-63 Cd136  TNFR superfamily, T cell costimulation 
CD137/MSPR, RON Not defined Receptor for macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP) (human) 
CD138/syndecan-1 Synd-1 12 B cell development/differentiation 
CD139 Not defined   
CD140a/PDGF-R α-chain Pdgfra Tyrosine kinase receptor family, binds to PDGF a and b, signal transduction 
CD140b/PDGF-R β-chain Pdgfrb 18 Tyrosine kinase receptor family, binds only to PDGF b, signal transduction 
CD141/thrombomodulin Thbd  
CD142 Not defined Unknown Tissue factor, receptor for cofactor VII (human) 
CD143 Ace 11 Angiotesin converting enzyme 
CD144/VE-cadherin Cdh5 Adhesion 
CDw145   Pan endothelial marker (defined by mAbs E036, E037) 
CD146/MUC 18/s-endo Not defined   
CD147/neurothelin, basigin Bsg 10 Ig superfamily, blood-brain barrier, expressed on activated leukocytes 
CD148/M4, M56 Not defined   
CD149/MEM-133 Not defined   
CDw 150/IPO-3; SLAM Not defined  Ig superfamily, T cell stimulation (human) 
CD151/PETA Not defined  TM4 family; signaling 
CD152/CTLA-4, Ly-56 Cd152 T cell activation/regulation, CD80 and CD86 counter-receptor 
CD153/CD30 ligand Cd153 TNF family, activated lymphocytes, CD30 counter-receptor 
CD154/CD40 ligand (gp39), Ly-62 Cd154 TNF family, T cell activation, transient expression 
CD155 Not defined  Poliovirus receptor (human) 
CD156/ADAM8 Cd156  
CD157/BST-1, Mo-5, Ly-65 Bp3 Ectoenzyme, B and T cell development 
CD158a/p58.1 Not defined  NK receptor (human) 
CD159b/p58.2 Not defined  NK receptor (human) 
CD160 Reserved   
CD161a Klrb1 NK cell activation/regulation; NKR-P1A 
CD161b    
CD161c Klrb3  Mouse NK1.1, pan NK marker; NKR-P1C 
CD162/PSGL-1 Cd162  P-selectin ligand protein one P11, P12 (human) 
CD163 Not defined   
CD164/MGC-24, A115, A25 Not defined   
    
CD165/Ad2/gp37 Not defined   
CD166/ALCAM Cd166  CD6 counter-receptor, activated leukocyte-cell adhesion molecule, thymic development, T/B interaction, nervous system (human) 
a

CD1-CD130 are cited in ref. 4; references for CD131–CD166 have been entered into the Mouse Genome Database (http://www.informatics.jax.org).

We thank M. A. Reyes and Drs. C. Shih, K. Holmes, and V. Kumar for their helpful assistance with this manuscript, and B. R. Marshall for excellent editorial assistance.

1

The Mouse Genome Database Project is supported by National Institutes of Health Grant HG00330.

3

Abbreviations used in this paper: CD, cluster of differentiation; Ly, lymphocyte antigen; HLDA, human leukocyte differentiation antigen; KIR, killing inhibitory receptor; DC, dendritic cell.

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