NALP1/NLRP1 is a prototype NLR family member and is involved in inflammasome formation and activation of caspase-1 in response to bacteria infections. The primary stimuli of NLRP1 appears to be the bacterial cell wall components, though the molecular mechanisms of recognition has remained elusive. The structure of a fragment of NLRP1 containing its leucine-rich repeats has been determined. The structure illustrates an unusual tetramerization of the leucine-rich repeats. There is a potential ligand binding site that appears to have affinity for sugar molecules.