Inflammatory macrophages have been implicated in hepatotoxicity induced by the analgesic acetaminophen (APAP). In these studies, we characterized the phenotype of macrophages accumulating in the liver following APAP intoxication and evaluated the role of galectin-3 (Gal-3) in macrophage activation. Administration of APAP (300 mg/kg, i.p.) to wild-type mice resulted in the appearance of two distinct subpopulations of CD11b+ cells in the liver, which expressed high or low levels of the monocyte/macrophage activation marker Ly6C. Whereas CD11b+/Ly6Chi macrophages exhibited a classically activated proinflammatory phenotype characterized by increased expression of TNF-α, inducible NO synthase, and CCR2, CD11b+/Ly6Clo macrophages were alternatively activated, expressing high levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. APAP intoxication was also associated with an accumulation of Gal-3+ macrophages in the liver; the majority of these cells were Ly6Chi. APAP-induced increases in CD11b+/Ly6Chi macrophages were significantly reduced in Gal-3−/− mice. This reduction was evident 72 h post APAP and was correlated with decreased expression of the classical macrophage activation markers, inducible NO synthase, IL-12, and TNF-α, as well as the proinflammatory chemokines CCL2 and CCL3, and chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR2. Conversely, numbers of CD11b+/Ly6Clo macrophages increased in livers of APAP-treated Gal-3−/− mice; this was associated with increased expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers Ym1 and Fizz1, increased liver repair, and reduced hepatotoxicity. These data demonstrate that both classically and alternatively activated macrophages accumulate in the liver following APAP intoxication; moreover, Gal-3 plays a role in promoting a persistent proinflammatory macrophage phenotype.

Liver injury caused by overdose of the analgesic acetaminophen (APAP) is the major cause of acute liver failure in the United States (1). APAP intoxication is characterized by centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis, which is initiated by covalent binding of the reactive APAP metabolite, N-acetyl–parabenzoquinoneimine, to critical protein targets in the liver (2). Evidence suggests that activated macrophages contribute to the pathogenic response to APAP. However, the role of these cells in APAP hepatotoxicity depends on their origin, the timing of their appearance in the liver, and the inflammatory mediators they encounter, which control their phenotype and function. On the basis of studies using macrophage inhibitors and transgenic mice, two subpopulations of macrophages that play distinct roles in hepatotoxicity have been identified in the liver after APAP intoxication: classically activated proinflammatory/cytotoxic macrophages and alternatively activated anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages (37). It appears that the outcome of tissue injury depends on which macrophage subpopulation predominates. Thus, hepatotoxicity results from exaggerated or persistent responses of classically activated macrophages, whereas hepatoprotection is associated with increases in numbers of alternatively activated macrophages (reviewed in Refs. 8, 9). The mechanisms regulating classical and alternative macrophage activation in the liver after APAP intoxication have not been established.

Galactin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside–binding lectin secreted by macrophages in response to LPS, TNF-α, or IFN-γ (10, 11). Gal-3 acts in an autocrine and paracrine manner to promote macrophage release of proinflammatory mediators, including TNF-α, IL-12, CCL3, and CCL4, as well as reactive nitrogen species generated via inducible NO synthase (iNOS) (1013). Loss of Gal-3 has been reported to result in reduced susceptibility to Ag-induced arthritis, renal ischemia–reperfusion injury, hypoxic–ischemic brain injury, and Con A–induced hepatotoxicity, pathological conditions associated with exaggerated proinflammatory mediator activity (1417). These findings led us to hypothesize that Gal-3 plays a role in promoting classical macrophage activation and inflammatory mediator production in the liver following APAP intoxication. This idea is supported by our findings of reduced hepatotoxicity and inflammatory mediator production in response to APAP in mice lacking Gal-3 (18). In the present studies, we extended these observations and characterized the role of Gal-3 in regulating the phenotype of hepatic macrophage subpopulations accumulating in the liver during APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Results from these studies provide additional support for the contribution of Gal-3 to promoting inflammation in the liver following APAP intoxication.

Male specific pathogen-free C57BL/6J wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice (8–12 wk old) were obtained from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). Gal-3−/− mice were backcrossed to a C57BL/6 background for more than 10 generations. Mice were housed in microisolation cages and allowed free access to food and water. All animals received humane care in compliance with the institution’s guidelines, as outlined in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, published by the National Institutes of Health. Mice were fasted overnight prior to i.p. administration of APAP (300 mg/kg) or PBS control. Mice were euthanized 24–72 h later with Nembutal (200 mg/kg). Liver samples (100-mg aliquots) were collected and stored at −20°C in RNAlater (Invitrogen, Grand Island, NY) until RNA isolation. The remaining tissue was snap frozen in liquid nitrogen.

Nonparenchymal cells were isolated from the liver as previously described, with some modifications (19). The liver was perfused through the portal vein with warm Ca2+/Mg2+-free HBSS (pH 7.3) containing 25 mM HEPES and 0.5 mM EGTA, followed by Leibowitz L-15 medium containing HEPES, 0.2 U/ml Liberase 3 Blendzyme, and 0.5 mg/ml protease type XIV. The liver was excised, disaggregated, and incubated with 2 mg/ml protease type XIV for 15 min at 37°C. The resulting cell suspension was filtered through a 220-μm nylon mesh. Hepatocytes were separated from nonparenchymal cells by four successive washes (50× g, 3 min). Supernatants containing nonparenchymal cells were centrifuged (300× g, 7 min), and the cells purified by density gradient centrifugation using OptiPrep Medium (Sigma-Aldrich, St Louis, MO). Viability was assessed by trypan blue dye exclusion and was >95%.

Cells were analyzed immediately following isolation. Nonspecific binding was blocked by incubation of the cells with anti-mouse–FcRII/III Ab (BD Biosciences, Franklin Lakes, NJ) for 5 min at 4°C. This was followed by 30 min incubation with FITC-conjugated anti-CD11b and PE-conjugated anti-Ly6C Abs or isotype controls (BioLegend, San Diego, CA). Cells were then fixed in 3% paraformaldehyde; permeabilized in buffer containing 0.1% saponin, 0.1% sodium azide, and 1% FBS in PBS; and stained with anti–Gal-3 Ab or goat IgG (R&D Systems, Minneapolis, MN), followed by isotype-specific Alexa Fluor 633–conjugated secondary Ab (Molecular Probes, Carlsbad, CA). Cells were analyzed using an FC500 flow cytometer (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA). For sorting, cells were incubated with anti-mouse–FcRII/III Ab, followed by FITC-conjugated anti-CD45, Alexa Fluor 647–conjugated CD11b, and PE-conjugated anti-Ly6C Abs (BioLegend) for 30 min. DAPI was added to the cell suspension immediately before analysis to exclude dead cells. Cells were sorted into DAPI/CD45+/CD11b+/Ly6Chi and DAPI/CD45+/CD11b+/Ly6Clo subpopulations, using a Beckman Coulter MoFlo XDP Cell Sorter, and immediately processed for RNA isolation.

Livers were collected and 5-mm samples of the left lobes immediately fixed overnight at 4°C in 3% paraformaldehyde/2% sucrose. Tissue was washed three times in PBS containing 2% sucrose, and then transferred to 50% ethanol. After embedding in paraffin, 5-μm sections were prepared. For immunohistochemistry, sections were rehydrated and stained with Ab to proliferating cell nuclear Ag (PCNA) (1:800; Abcam, Cambridge, MA), Ym1 (1:450; StemCell, Vancouver, BC, Canada), or IgG control (ProSci, Poway, CA). Binding was visualized using a VECTASTAIN Elite ABC Kit (Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA). Three to five random sections of each liver were examined.

Liver samples (5 mm) were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen–cooled isopentane and embedded in OCT medium (Sakura Finetek, Torrance, CA). Then 6-μm sections were prepared and fixed in 90% acetone/10% methanol. For double immunofluorescence, a sequential staining procedure was used (20). Sections were stained with anti-Ly6C Ab (1:50; AbD Serotec, Kidlington, U.K.), followed by isotype-specific Alexa Fluor 488–conjugated secondary Ab (Molecular Probes, Carlsbad, CA). After blocking with 5% rat serum, sections were stained with FITC-conjugated anti-F4/80 Ab (1:50; AbD Serotec, Kidlington, U.K.), followed by anti-FITC Alexa Fluor 488–conjugated secondary Ab. Images were acquired using a Leica TCS SP5 confocal microscope (Leica Microsystems, Wetzlar, Germany). Identical laser power, gain, and offset settings were used for all analyses.

Liver samples (30 mg) were lysed in buffer containing 20 mM HEPES, 150 mM NaCl, 10% glycerol, 1% Triton X-100, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 1 mM diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid, 1 mM phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, 10 mM sodium pyrophosphate, 50 mM sodium fluoride, 2 mM sodium orthovanadate, and protease inhibitor mixture. Protein concentrations were measured using the Bradford Assay (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). Proteins were separated on Tris-glycine polyacrylamide gels (Bio-Rad) and transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes. Nonspecific binding was blocked by incubation of the blots for 1 h at room temperature with buffer containing 5% nonfat milk, 10 mM Tris-base, 200 mM sodium chloride, and 0.1% polysorbate 20. Membranes were then incubated overnight at 4°C with anti–Gal-3 (1:2000) or anti-actin (1:1000) primary Abs, followed by incubation with isotype-specific HRP-conjugated secondary Abs (1:10,000) for 1 h at room temperature. Binding was visualized using an ECL Plus chemiluminescence kit (GE Healthcare, Piscataway, NJ).

Total RNA was isolated from liver samples using an RNeasy Mini kit, and from sorted monocytes/macrophages using an RNeasy Micro kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). RNA purity and concentration were measured using a Nanodrop spectrophotometer (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Wilmington, DE). RNA was converted into cDNA using a High Capacity cDNA Reverse Transcription kit according to the manufacturer’s directions (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Standard curves were generated using serial dilutions from pooled randomly selected cDNA samples. Real-time PCR was performed using SYBR Green PCR Master Mix (Applied Biosystems) on a 7900HT thermocycler (Applied Biosystems). All PCR primer pairs were generated using Primer Express 2.0 (Applied Biosystems) and synthesized by Integrated DNA Technologies (Coralville, IA). For each sample, gene expression changes were normalized relative to 18S RNA. Data are expressed as fold change relative to control. Forward and reverse primer sequences were as follows: TNF-α, 5′-AGGGATGAGAAGTTCCCAAATG-3′ and 5′-TGTGAGGGTCTGGGCCATA-3′; iNOS, 5′-GGCAGCCTGTGAGACCTTTG-3′ and 5′-TGAAGCGTTTCGGGATCTG-3′; IL-12, 5′-CCTGGAGCACTCCCCATTC-3′ and 5′-TGCGCTGGATTCGAACAA-3′; CCL2, 5′-TTGAATGTGAAGTTGACCCGTAA-3′ and 5′-GCTTGAGGTTGTGGAAAAG-3′; CCL3, 5′-TCTTCTCAGCGCCATATGGA-3′ and 5′-TCCGGCTGTAGGAGAAGCA-3′; CCL4, 5′-AGGGTTCTCAGCACCAATGG-3′ and 5′-CCGGGAGGTGTAAGAGAAACAG-3′; CX3CL1, 5′-GCACAGGATGCAGGGCTTAC-3′ and 5′-TGTCAGCCGCCTCAAAACT-3′; CCR1, 5′-CTGAGGGCCCGAACTGTTAC-3′ and 5′-GGCTAGGGCCCAGGTGAT-3′; CCR5, 5′-TGATAAGCTGCAAAAAGCTGAAGA-3′ and 5′-GTCAGAGATGGCCAGGTTGAG-3′; CCR2, 5′-TCCACGGCATACTATCAACATCTC-3′ and 5′-GGCCCCTTCATCAAGCTCTT-3′; CX3CR1, 5′-TCGGTCTGGTGGGAAATCTG-3′ and 5′-GGCTTCCGGCTGTTGGT-3′; Gal-1, 5′-CGGACGCCAAGAGCTTTGT-3′ and 5′-TGAAGTGTAGGCACAGGTTGTTG-3′; found in inflammatory zone-1 (Fizz-1), 5′-CAGCTGATGGTCCCAGTGAA-3′ and 5′-TTCCTTGACCTTATTCTCCACGAT-3′; Ym1, 5′-TCTGGTGAAGGAAATGCGTAAA-3′ and 5′-GCAGCCTTGGAATGTCTTTCTC-3′; 18S RNA, 5′-CGGCTACCACATCCAAGGAA-3′ and 5′-GCTGGAATTACCGCGGCT-3′.

Experiments were repeated two or three times. Data were analyzed using the Student t test or one-way ANOVA followed by Dunn’s post hoc analysis. A p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

In our initial series of studies, we used techniques in flow cytometry/cell sorting to assess the phenotype of macrophages accumulating in the liver after APAP intoxication. CD11b is the α-chain of the Mac-1 integrin expressed on myeloid cells (21). APAP administration resulted in a time-related increase in CD11b+ cells in the liver (Fig. 1A, 1D). This was evident within 24 h and persisted for at least 72 h after APAP administration. To characterize these cells, we analyzed their expression of Ly6C, a surface Ag present at high levels on proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages (22). In livers of both control and APAP-treated mice, two distinct subpopulations of CD11b+ cells were identified based on their expression of Ly6C. These consisted of Ly6Clo cells and Ly6Chi cells (Fig. 1A). In wild-type mice, the majority of CD11b+ cells expressed low levels of Ly6C. Following APAP administration, time-related increases in both Ly6Clo and Ly6Chi subpopulations were observed. Time-related increases in cells expressing Ly6C were also observed in histological sections following APAP administration (Fig. 2). These cells were mainly noted in centrilobular regions of the liver and were distinct from F4/80+ resident Kupffer cells. In contrast to Ly6C+ cells, F4/80+ macrophages decreased in areas surrounding the central veins following APAP administration, a response that persisted for 48 h; subsequently, they began to reappear.

FIGURE 1.

Characterization of macrophage subpopulations in the liver following APAP intoxication. Liver nonparenchymal cells were isolated 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type (WT) mice (A, B) or Gal-3−/− mice (C) with APAP or PBS control (CTL). Cells were stained with Abs to CD11b, Ly6C, and Gal-3, or appropriate isotypic controls, as described in 2Materials and Methods, and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (A) Expression of CD11b and Ly6C by liver nonparenchymal cells from wild-type mice. (B) Expression of Ly6C and Gal-3 by CD11b+ nonparenchymal cells from wild-type mice. (C) Expression of CD11b and Ly6C by liver nonparenchymal cells from Gal-3−/− mice. The percentages (mean ± SE) of each cell population are indicated. One representative plot from 4 to 12 mice is shown. (D) The number of CD11b+ cells, CD11b+/Ly6Chi cells, and CD11b+/Ly6Clo cells was calculated from the percentage of positive cells relative to the total number of liver nonparenchymal cells recovered. Bars represent the mean ± SE (n = 4–12 mice). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from CTL. bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice.

FIGURE 1.

Characterization of macrophage subpopulations in the liver following APAP intoxication. Liver nonparenchymal cells were isolated 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type (WT) mice (A, B) or Gal-3−/− mice (C) with APAP or PBS control (CTL). Cells were stained with Abs to CD11b, Ly6C, and Gal-3, or appropriate isotypic controls, as described in 2Materials and Methods, and then analyzed by flow cytometry. (A) Expression of CD11b and Ly6C by liver nonparenchymal cells from wild-type mice. (B) Expression of Ly6C and Gal-3 by CD11b+ nonparenchymal cells from wild-type mice. (C) Expression of CD11b and Ly6C by liver nonparenchymal cells from Gal-3−/− mice. The percentages (mean ± SE) of each cell population are indicated. One representative plot from 4 to 12 mice is shown. (D) The number of CD11b+ cells, CD11b+/Ly6Chi cells, and CD11b+/Ly6Clo cells was calculated from the percentage of positive cells relative to the total number of liver nonparenchymal cells recovered. Bars represent the mean ± SE (n = 4–12 mice). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from CTL. bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice.

Close modal
FIGURE 2.

Effects of APAP on liver macrophage expression of Ly6C and F4/80. Liver sections, prepared 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), were sequentially stained with anti-Ly6C and anti-F4/80 Abs, as described in 2Materials and Methods. Scale bars, 25 μm. One representative section from three or four mice is shown.

FIGURE 2.

Effects of APAP on liver macrophage expression of Ly6C and F4/80. Liver sections, prepared 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), were sequentially stained with anti-Ly6C and anti-F4/80 Abs, as described in 2Materials and Methods. Scale bars, 25 μm. One representative section from three or four mice is shown.

Close modal

To further characterize the Ly6Clo and Ly6Chi macrophage subpopulations responding to APAP, the cells were sorted and examined microscopically. Giemsa staining confirmed that both subpopulations consisted of mononuclear phagocytes (Fig. 3, upper panel). Ly6Clo cells were enlarged relative to Ly6Chi cells, and more irregularly shaped. Ly6Clo cells also contained highly vacuolated cytoplasm and displayed an increased cytoplasmic/nuclear ratio. RT-PCR analysis of the sorted cells revealed that Ly6Chi cells expressed higher mRNA levels of the proinflammatory proteins TNF-α and iNOS, as well as the chemokine receptor CCR2, relative to Ly6Clo cells (Fig. 3, lower panel). In contrast, mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was reduced in Ly6Chi cells when compared with Ly6Clo cells.

FIGURE 3.

Characterization of Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo macrophages accumulating in the liver following APAP intoxication. Liver nonparenchymal cells, isolated 48 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP, were stained with anti-CD11b and anti-Ly6C Abs, as described in 2Materials and Methods. CD11b+ cells were sorted, based on expression of Ly6C, into CD11b+/Ly6Chi and CD11b+/Ly6Clo subpopulations. Upper panel, Cytospin preparations of sorted cells were stained with Giemsa. Original magnification ×40. Lower panel, mRNA expression of sorted cells was assessed by RT-PCR. Data were normalized relative to GAPDH; bars represent mean ± SE (n = 4–6). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from Ly6Clo cells.

FIGURE 3.

Characterization of Ly6Chi and Ly6Clo macrophages accumulating in the liver following APAP intoxication. Liver nonparenchymal cells, isolated 48 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP, were stained with anti-CD11b and anti-Ly6C Abs, as described in 2Materials and Methods. CD11b+ cells were sorted, based on expression of Ly6C, into CD11b+/Ly6Chi and CD11b+/Ly6Clo subpopulations. Upper panel, Cytospin preparations of sorted cells were stained with Giemsa. Original magnification ×40. Lower panel, mRNA expression of sorted cells was assessed by RT-PCR. Data were normalized relative to GAPDH; bars represent mean ± SE (n = 4–6). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from Ly6Clo cells.

Close modal

Consistent with our earlier studies (18), we found that APAP intoxication was associated with a time-dependent increase in Gal-3 protein expression in the liver, which was evident within 24 h and persisted for at least 72 h (Fig. 4, upper and middle panels). Immunostaining of the liver showed that Gal-3 was expressed by macrophages infiltrating necrotic areas of the liver (Fig. 4, lower panel; see Ref. 18). Flow cytometric analyses revealed that the majority of the Gal-3+ macrophages infiltrating into the liver 24–48 h after APAP administration expressed high levels of Ly6C (Fig. 1B). In contrast, in control mice, most Gal-3+ macrophages were Ly6Clo. APAP administration resulted in a decrease in the percentage of Gal-3+/LyClo cells at 24 h and 48 h; by 72 h, the percentage of these cells began to increase (Fig. 1B).

FIGURE 4.

Effects of APAP intoxication on Gal-3 expression in the liver. Livers were collected 6–72 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL). Upper panel, Gal-3 expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Actin was used as the loading control. Each lane represents a different animal. Middle panel, Densitometric analysis was performed using ImageJ. Each bar represents the mean ± SE (n = 3 mice). Lower panel, Livers were collected 72 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP or control. Gal-3 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry as described in Materials and Methods. One representative section from six mice is shown. Original magnification ×100.

FIGURE 4.

Effects of APAP intoxication on Gal-3 expression in the liver. Livers were collected 6–72 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL). Upper panel, Gal-3 expression was analyzed by Western blotting. Actin was used as the loading control. Each lane represents a different animal. Middle panel, Densitometric analysis was performed using ImageJ. Each bar represents the mean ± SE (n = 3 mice). Lower panel, Livers were collected 72 h after treatment of wild-type mice with APAP or control. Gal-3 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry as described in Materials and Methods. One representative section from six mice is shown. Original magnification ×100.

Close modal

We previously reported reduced injury and inflammation in the liver following APAP intoxication in mice lacking Gal-3 (18). In further studies, we determined if this was associated with alterations in the macrophage subpopulations that appeared in the liver in response to APAP. Whereas loss of Gal-3 had no effect on the total number of CD11b+ cells in the liver following APAP intoxication, a significant decrease in CD11b+/Ly6Chi macrophages was observed (Fig. 1C, 1D). This decrease was associated with an increase in CD11b+/Ly6Clo macrophages. Increased numbers of CD11b+/Ly6Clo macrophages were also observed in PBS control-treated Gal-3−/− mice. Changes in liver macrophage subpopulations in APAP-treated Gal-3−/− mice were correlated with decreases in APAP-induced expression of the proinflammatory proteins IL-12, iNOS, and TNF-α, which was evident at 24 h and 48 h for IL-12, and at 48 h and 72 h for iNOS and TNF-α, as well as the chemokines CCL2 and CCL3, and the chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR2, effects most prominent after 72 h (Figs. 5, 6). Delayed CCL4 expression was also noted. Conversely, increases in expression of CX3CL1/CX3CR1 were observed in Gal-3−/− mice relative to wild-type mice at 24 h post APAP administration; however, by 72 h, CX3CR1 expression was reduced in these mice (Fig. 6). APAP-induced expression of CCR5 was not altered by loss of Gal-3 (Fig. 6). The mRNA expression of Ym1 and Fizz-1, markers of alternatively activated anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages (23), was also increased in Gal-3−/− mice, when compared with wild-type mice, after APAP administration (Figs. 5, 7). Interestingly, whereas in control mice Ym1 protein was expressed in hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells, after APAP administration Ym1 was upregulated in macrophages (Fig. 7). This shift was first evident 48 h post APAP and was correlated with decreased Ym1 expression in endothelial cells. Loss of Gal-3 was associated with a more rapid and abundant increase in Ym1+ macrophages in the liver, which was apparent within 24 h and remained elevated for at least 72 h. In contrast, expression of the anti-inflammatory lectin Gal-1, which increased in wild-type mice 48 h and 72 h after APAP administration, was not significantly altered by loss of Gal-3 (Fig. 5). Alterations in liver macrophage subpopulations and inflammatory mediator expression in Gal-3−/− mice were also associated with increased repair of APAP-induced injury. Thus, significant increases in hepatocyte proliferation, as measured by the number of PCNA-positive cells and mitotic index, were observed in the livers of Gal-3−/− mice when compared with wild-type mice (Figs. 8, 9).

FIGURE 5.

Effects of APAP intoxication on expression of markers of classical and alternative macrophage activation. mRNA was prepared from liver samples 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), and analyzed by RT-PCR. Data were normalized to 18S RNA and presented as fold change relative to control. Each bar represents the mean ± SE (n = 3–8 mice). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from CTL. bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice.

FIGURE 5.

Effects of APAP intoxication on expression of markers of classical and alternative macrophage activation. mRNA was prepared from liver samples 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), and analyzed by RT-PCR. Data were normalized to 18S RNA and presented as fold change relative to control. Each bar represents the mean ± SE (n = 3–8 mice). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from CTL. bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice.

Close modal
FIGURE 6.

Effects of APAP intoxication on expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors. mRNA was prepared from liver samples collected 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), and analyzed by RT-PCR. Data were normalized to 18S RNA and presented as fold change relative to PBS control. Each bar represents the mean ± SE (n = 3–8 mice). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from CTL. bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice.

FIGURE 6.

Effects of APAP intoxication on expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors. mRNA was prepared from liver samples collected 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), and analyzed by RT-PCR. Data were normalized to 18S RNA and presented as fold change relative to PBS control. Each bar represents the mean ± SE (n = 3–8 mice). aSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from CTL. bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice.

Close modal
FIGURE 7.

Effects of APAP intoxication on Ym1 expression. Liver sections, prepared 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), were stained with anti-Ym1 Ab or IgG control. Binding was visualized using a VECTASTAIN Elite ABC Kit, with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine as substrate. One representative section from three mice is shown. Arrows and insets indicate macrophages. Original magnification ×40; insets ×100.

FIGURE 7.

Effects of APAP intoxication on Ym1 expression. Liver sections, prepared 24–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL), were stained with anti-Ym1 Ab or IgG control. Binding was visualized using a VECTASTAIN Elite ABC Kit, with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine as substrate. One representative section from three mice is shown. Arrows and insets indicate macrophages. Original magnification ×40; insets ×100.

Close modal
FIGURE 8.

Effects of APAP administration on PCNA expression. Liver sections, prepared 48–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control, were stained with anti-PCNA Ab or IgG control. One representative section from four to six mice is shown. Original magnification ×63.

FIGURE 8.

Effects of APAP administration on PCNA expression. Liver sections, prepared 48–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control, were stained with anti-PCNA Ab or IgG control. One representative section from four to six mice is shown. Original magnification ×63.

Close modal
FIGURE 9.

Effects of loss of Gal-3 on liver repair following APAP intoxication. Liver sections were prepared 48–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL). Left panel, Sections were stained with anti-PCNA Ab or IgG control. PCNA-positive hepatocyte nuclei were counted in six random fields per section (magnification ×200). Right panel, Sections were stained with H&E, and hepatocytes containing a mitotic figure were enumerated in 10–12 random fields. The mitotic index was calculated as the number of positive cells per field. Bars represent the mean ±SE (n = 3–6 mice). bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice. N.D., Not detected.

FIGURE 9.

Effects of loss of Gal-3 on liver repair following APAP intoxication. Liver sections were prepared 48–72 h after treatment of wild-type and Gal-3−/− mice with APAP or PBS control (CTL). Left panel, Sections were stained with anti-PCNA Ab or IgG control. PCNA-positive hepatocyte nuclei were counted in six random fields per section (magnification ×200). Right panel, Sections were stained with H&E, and hepatocytes containing a mitotic figure were enumerated in 10–12 random fields. The mitotic index was calculated as the number of positive cells per field. Bars represent the mean ±SE (n = 3–6 mice). bSignificantly different (p < 0.05) from wild-type mice. N.D., Not detected.

Close modal

Classically and alternatively activated macrophage subpopulations have been shown to play distinct roles in the pathogenesis of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Thus, whereas classically activated macrophages release cytotoxic/proinflammatory mediators that contribute to injury, alternatively activated macrophages downregulate inflammation and promote tissue repair (reviewed in Ref. 8). However, mechanisms regulating phenotypic activation of macrophages in the liver have not been established. The present studies demonstrate that Gal-3 functions in promoting persistent activation of proinflammatory/cytotoxic macrophages in the liver following APAP intoxication. These findings are important, as they suggest a novel mechanism for classical macrophage activation during the pathogenesis of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.

Evidence suggests that classically and alternatively activated macrophages accumulating in the liver after APAP-induced injury arise from distinct precursors (47, 24). The present studies provide additional support for this concept. We confirmed that APAP intoxication results in a time-related increase in CD11b+ macrophages in the liver, which are distinct from resident Kupffer cells (6). In addition, we demonstrated that these CD11b+ cells are heterogeneous with respect to their expression levels of the macrophage activation marker Ly6C. Thus, two subpopulations were identified: cells expressing high levels of Ly6C and cells expressing low levels of Ly6C. Moreover, these CD11b+ subpopulations are functionally distinct. Whereas CD11b+/Ly6Chi macrophages exhibited a classically activated proinflammatory phenotype, characterized by increased mRNA expression of TNF-α, iNOS, and CCR2, CD11b+/Ly6Clo macrophages expressed increased mRNA levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, indicating that they are alternatively activated. Both CD11b+/Ly6Chi and CD11b+/Ly6Clo macrophage subpopulations were found to increase in number in the liver following APAP intoxication; the response of Ly6Chi macrophages was more robust than that of Ly6Clo macrophages. Accumulating Ly6Chi monocytes/macrophages have been reported to contribute to the development of tissue injury and inflammation in the liver induced by high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride, as well as acute pancreatitis and myocardial infarction (2528), and we speculate that they play a similar pathogenic role in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.

APAP-induced increases in CD11b+/Ly6Clo macrophages in the liver were also associated with the appearance of Ym1-positive alternatively activated macrophages in the tissue. Hepatic expression of the anti-inflammatory lectin Gal-1, which is thought to promote alternative macrophage activation (2931), also increased after APAP administration, suggesting a mechanism mediating their appearance in the liver. In contrast, APAP had no major effect on expression of Fizz-1, another marker of alternative macrophage activation (23). These data support the concept of subpopulation heterogeneity in alternatively activated macrophages (32). Depletion of alternatively activated macrophages with clodronate liposomes is associated with a reduction in APAP-induced IL-10 expression in the liver and exaggerated hepatotoxicity (4). These data, along with reports that IL-10 plays a protective role in the liver following APAP intoxication (33, 34), suggest that IL-10–producing CD11b+/Ly6Clo cells are key to tissue repair in this model. This idea is supported by our findings that in Gal-3−/− mice, increases in CD11b+/Ly6Clo cells were correlated with accelerated tissue repair, as measured by hepatocyte proliferation and reduced hepatotoxicity (18).

Following APAP intoxication we also observed a time-related increase in Gal-3+ macrophages in the liver, which is in agreement with our previous findings (18). The present studies show that these cells express high levels of Ly6C, indicating a proinflammatory phenotype. In accord with this idea is our observation that in the absence of Gal-3 the number of Ly6Chi macrophages appearing in the liver following APAP administration was significantly decreased, and that expression of the classical macrophage activation markers, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-12, and the proinflammatory chemokines and chemokine receptors, CCL2, CCL3, CCR1, and CCR2, was reduced. The fact that CD11b+/Ly6Clo anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages increased in livers of APAP-treated Gal-3−/− mice, and that this was correlated with a more rapid appearance of Ym1-positive macrophages in the tissue, as well as a marked increase in Fizz-1 expression, suggest a shift in the balance of macrophage subpopulations, leading to accelerated tissue repair. Analogous increases in alternatively activated macrophages and hepatoprotection have been described in Gal-3−/− mice treated with Con A (17). Of note is our observation that, in control mice, Gal-3 is expressed at low levels by CD11b+/Ly6Clo cells, supporting previous reports that some liver resident macrophage subpopulations express this protein (18, 35). Expression of Gal-3 on resident Kupffer cells is consistent with findings that these cells are constitutively activated owing to continuous exposure to LPS in the portal circulation (36).

We also noted more rapid increases in peak expression of CX3CR1 and its ligand CX3CL1 in the livers of Gal-3−/− mice treated with APAP. CX3CR1 is highly expressed on anti-inflammatory/wound repair monocytes and macrophages (22), whereas CX3CL1 is produced primarily by hepatocytes and stellate cells following liver injury (37, 38). CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 have been shown to play a protective role in toxin A–induced enteritis and carbon tetrachloride–induced liver inflammation and fibrosis, effects thought to be due to the recruitment of alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages to sites of infection or injury (37, 39). It remains to be determined if the CX3CL1/CX3CR1 signaling pathway is involved in hepatic recruitment of anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages following APAP intoxication.

A question arises with regard to the mechanisms underlying the appearance of proinflammatory macrophages in the liver following APAP intoxication. Our findings that peak expression of key proinflammatory mediators, including TNF-α and IL-12, and chemokines like CCL2 and CCL4, precedes maximal increases in Ly6Chi/Gal-3+ macrophages in the liver suggest that the proinflammatory hepatic microenvironment promotes the development of classically activated macrophages. However, at present we cannot exclude the possibility that macrophages are recruited to the liver in response to Gal-3 or other chemokines, or danger-associated molecular patterns, such as high mobility group box-1, released from APAP-injured hepatocytes (4042). It appears that once localized in the liver, Gal-3+ macrophages play a role in maintaining the proinflammatory/cytotoxic microenvironment. In this regard, Gal-3 has been shown to upregulate expression of TNF-α, iNOS, and IL-12 in primary microglia and human monocytes (11, 13). Moreover, reduced susceptibility to injury induced by streptozotocin, Con A, or Ag-induced arthritis in Gal-3−/− mice is associated with decreased expression of these inflammatory proteins (14, 17, 43).

In contrast to our findings, Gal-3 has previously been reported to induce alternative activation in cultured macrophages (44). Differences between these results and our findings may be due to analysis of bone marrow–derived macrophages activated in vitro with defined concentrations of cytokines versus freshly isolated liver macrophages from APAP-injured mice. This difference may be important, as Gal-3 expression and its intracellular distribution have been shown to be altered when primary macrophages are cultured in vitro (45).

In summary, the present studies identify and characterize multiple macrophage subpopulations accumulating in the liver following APAP intoxication, and demonstrate a role for Gal-3 in promoting persistent classical macrophage activation, which contributes to hepatotoxicity. A more detailed understanding of the mechanisms regulating the phenotype of activated macrophages during APAP-induced liver injury may lead to the development of novel approaches to mitigating toxicity caused by this widely used analgesic.

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants R01GM034310, R01ES004738, R01CA132624, U54AR055073, and P30ES005022.

Abbreviations used in this article:

APAP

acetaminophen

Fizz-1

found in inflammatory zone-1

Gal-3

galectin-3

iNOS

inducible NO synthase

PCNA

proliferating cell nuclear Ag.

1
Lee
W. M.
2012
.
Acute liver failure.
Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
33
:
36
45
.
2
Nelson
S. D.
,
Bruschi
S. A.
.
2007
.
Mechanisms of acetaminophen-induced liver disease.
In
Drug-Induced Liver Disease
, 2nd ed.
Kaplowitz
N.
,
DeLeve
L. D.
, eds.
Informa Healthcare
,
New York
, p.
353
388
.
3
Laskin
D. L.
,
Gardner
C. R.
,
Price
V. F.
,
Jollow
D. J.
.
1995
.
Modulation of macrophage functioning abrogates the acute hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen.
Hepatology
21
:
1045
1050
.
4
Ju
C.
,
Reilly
T. P.
,
Bourdi
M.
,
Radonovich
M. F.
,
Brady
J. N.
,
George
J. W.
,
Pohl
L. R.
.
2002
.
Protective role of Kupffer cells in acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury in mice.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
15
:
1504
1513
.
5
Dambach
D. M.
,
Watson
L. M.
,
Gray
K. R.
,
Durham
S. K.
,
Laskin
D. L.
.
2002
.
Role of CCR2 in macrophage migration into the liver during acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in the mouse.
Hepatology
35
:
1093
1103
.
6
Holt
M. P.
,
Cheng
L.
,
Ju
C.
.
2008
.
Identification and characterization of infiltrating macrophages in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
84
:
1410
1421
.
7
Gardner
C. R.
,
Hankey
P.
,
Mishin
V.
,
Francis
M.
,
Yu
S.
,
Laskin
J. D.
,
Laskin
D. L.
.
2012
.
Regulation of alternative macrophage activation in the liver following acetaminophen intoxication by stem cell-derived tyrosine kinase.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
262
:
139
148
.
8
Laskin
D. L.
2009
.
Macrophages and inflammatory mediators in chemical toxicity: a battle of forces.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
22
:
1376
1385
.
9
Laskin
D. L.
,
Sunil
V. R.
,
Gardner
C. R.
,
Laskin
J. D.
.
2011
.
Macrophages and tissue injury: agents of defense or destruction?
Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol.
51
:
267
288
.
10
Liu
F. T.
,
Hsu
D. K.
,
Zuberi
R. I.
,
Kuwabara
I.
,
Chi
E. Y.
,
Henderson
W. R.
 Jr
.
1995
.
Expression and function of galectin-3, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, in human monocytes and macrophages.
Am. J. Pathol.
147
:
1016
1028
.
11
Nishi
Y.
,
Sano
H.
,
Kawashima
T.
,
Okada
T.
,
Kuroda
T.
,
Kikkawa
K.
,
Kawashima
S.
,
Tanabe
M.
,
Goto
T.
,
Matsuzawa
Y.
, et al
.
2007
.
Role of galectin-3 in human pulmonary fibrosis.
Allergol. Int.
56
:
57
65
.
12
Papaspyridonos
M.
,
McNeill
E.
,
de Bono
J. P.
,
Smith
A.
,
Burnand
K. G.
,
Channon
K. M.
,
Greaves
D. R.
.
2008
.
Galectin-3 is an amplifier of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaque progression through macrophage activation and monocyte chemoattraction.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
28
:
433
440
.
13
Jeon
S. B.
,
Yoon
H. J.
,
Chang
C. Y.
,
Koh
H. S.
,
Jeon
S. H.
,
Park
E. J.
.
2010
.
Galectin-3 exerts cytokine-like regulatory actions through the JAK-STAT pathway.
J. Immunol.
185
:
7037
7046
.
14
Forsman
H.
,
Islander
U.
,
Andréasson
E.
,
Andersson
A.
,
Onnheim
K.
,
Karlström
A.
,
Sävman
K.
,
Magnusson
M.
,
Brown
K. L.
,
Karlsson
A.
.
2011
.
Galectin 3 aggravates joint inflammation and destruction in antigen-induced arthritis.
Arthritis Rheum.
63
:
445
454
.
15
Fernandes Bertocchi
A. P.
,
Campanhole
G.
,
Wang
P. H.
,
Gonçalves
G. M.
,
Damião
M. J.
,
Cenedeze
M. A.
,
Beraldo
F. C.
,
de Paula Antunes Teixeira
V.
,
Dos Reis
M. A.
,
Mazzali
M.
, et al
.
2008
.
A role for galectin-3 in renal tissue damage triggered by ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Transpl. Int.
21
:
999
1007
.
16
Doverhag
C.
,
Hedtjärn
M.
,
Poirier
F.
,
Mallard
C.
,
Hagberg
H.
,
Karlsson
A.
,
Sävman
K.
.
2010
.
Galectin-3 contributes to neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.
Neurobiol. Dis.
38
:
36
46
.
17
Volarevic
V.
,
Milovanovic
M.
,
Ljujic
B.
,
Pejnovic
N.
,
Arsenijevic
N.
,
Nilsson
U.
,
Leffler
H.
,
Lukic
M. L.
.
2012
.
Galectin-3 deficiency prevents concanavalin A-induced hepatitis in mice.
Hepatology
55
:
1954
1964
.
18
Dragomir
A. C.
,
Sun
R.
,
Mishin
V.
,
Hall
L. B.
,
Laskin
J. D.
,
Laskin
D. L.
.
2012
.
Role of galectin-3 in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity and inflammatory mediator production.
Toxicol. Sci.
127
:
609
619
.
19
Chen
L. C.
,
Gordon
R. E.
,
Laskin
J. D.
,
Laskin
D. L.
.
2007
.
Role of TLR-4 in liver macrophage and endothelial cell responsiveness during acute endotoxemia.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
83
:
311
326
.
20
Lloyd
C. M.
,
Phillips
A. R.
,
Cooper
G. J.
,
Dunbar
P. R.
.
2008
.
Three-colour fluorescence immunohistochemistry reveals the diversity of cells staining for macrophage markers in murine spleen and liver.
J. Immunol. Methods
334
:
70
81
.
21
Dziennis
S.
,
Van Etten
R. A.
,
Pahl
H. L.
,
Morris
D. L.
,
Rothstein
T. L.
,
Blosch
C. M.
,
Perlmutter
R. M.
,
Tenen
D. G.
.
1995
.
The CD11b promoter directs high-level expression of reporter genes in macrophages in transgenic mice.
Blood
85
:
319
329
.
22
Robbins
C. S.
,
Swirski
F. K.
.
2010
.
The multiple roles of monocyte subsets in steady state and inflammation.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
67
:
2685
2693
.
23
Raes
G.
,
De Baetselier
P.
,
Noël
W.
,
Beschin
A.
,
Brombacher
F.
,
Hassanzadeh Gh
G.
.
2002
.
Differential expression of FIZZ1 and Ym1 in alternatively versus classically activated macrophages.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
71
:
597
602
.
24
Si
Y.
,
Tsou
C. L.
,
Croft
K.
,
Charo
I. F.
.
2010
.
CCR2 mediates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell trafficking to sites of inflammation in mice.
J. Clin. Invest.
120
:
1192
1203
.
25
Deng
Z. B.
,
Liu
Y.
,
Liu
C.
,
Xiang
X.
,
Wang
J.
,
Cheng
Z.
,
Shah
S. V.
,
Zhang
S.
,
Zhang
L.
,
Zhuang
X.
, et al
.
2009
.
Immature myeloid cells induced by a high-fat diet contribute to liver inflammation.
Hepatology
50
:
1412
1420
.
26
Karlmark
K. R.
,
Weiskirchen
R.
,
Zimmermann
H. W.
,
Gassler
N.
,
Ginhoux
F.
,
Weber
C.
,
Merad
M.
,
Luedde
T.
,
Trautwein
C.
,
Tacke
F.
.
2009
.
Hepatic recruitment of the inflammatory Gr1+ monocyte subset upon liver injury promotes hepatic fibrosis.
Hepatology
50
:
261
274
.
27
Perides
G.
,
Weiss
E. R.
,
Michael
E. S.
,
Laukkarinen
J. M.
,
Duffield
J. S.
,
Steer
M. L.
.
2011
.
TNF-α-dependent regulation of acute pancreatitis severity by Ly-6C(hi) monocytes in mice.
J. Biol. Chem.
286
:
13327
13335
.
28
Nahrendorf
M.
,
Swirski
F. K.
,
Aikawa
E.
,
Stangenberg
L.
,
Wurdinger
T.
,
Figueiredo
J. L.
,
Libby
P.
,
Weissleder
R.
,
Pittet
M. J.
.
2007
.
The healing myocardium sequentially mobilizes two monocyte subsets with divergent and complementary functions.
J. Exp. Med.
204
:
3037
3047
.
29
Correa
S. G.
,
Sotomayor
C. E.
,
Aoki
M. P.
,
Maldonado
C. A.
,
Rabinovich
G. A.
.
2003
.
Opposite effects of galectin-1 on alternative metabolic pathways of L-arginine in resident, inflammatory, and activated macrophages.
Glycobiology
13
:
119
128
.
30
Cooper
D.
,
Iqbal
A. J.
,
Gittens
B. R.
,
Cervone
C.
,
Perretti
M.
.
2012
.
The effect of galectins on leukocyte trafficking in inflammation: sweet or sour?
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
1253
:
181
192
.
31
Liu
F. T.
,
Rabinovich
G. A.
.
2010
.
Galectins: regulators of acute and chronic inflammation.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
1183
:
158
182
.
32
Sica
A.
,
Mantovani
A.
.
2012
.
Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas.
J. Clin. Invest.
122
:
787
795
.
33
Bourdi
M.
,
Masubuchi
Y.
,
Reilly
T. P.
,
Amouzadeh
H. R.
,
Martin
J. L.
,
George
J. W.
,
Shah
A. G.
,
Pohl
L. R.
.
2002
.
Protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury and lethality by interleukin 10: role of inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Hepatology
35
:
289
298
.
34
Bourdi
M.
,
Eiras
D. P.
,
Holt
M. P.
,
Webster
M. R.
,
Reilly
T. P.
,
Welch
K. D.
,
Pohl
L. R.
.
2007
.
Role of IL-6 in an IL-10 and IL-4 double knockout mouse model uniquely susceptible to acetaminophen-induced liver injury.
Chem. Res. Toxicol.
20
:
208
216
.
35
Nibbering
P. H.
,
Leijh
P. C.
,
van Furth
R.
.
1987
.
Quantitative immunocytochemical characterization of mononuclear phagocytes. II. Monocytes and tissue macrophages.
Immunology
62
:
171
176
.
36
Ahmad
N.
,
Chen
L. C.
,
Gordon
M. A.
,
Laskin
J. D.
,
Laskin
D. L.
.
2002
.
Regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by nitric oxide in activated hepatic macrophages during acute endotoxemia.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
71
:
1005
1011
.
37
Aoyama
T.
,
Inokuchi
S.
,
Brenner
D. A.
,
Seki
E.
.
2010
.
CX3CL1-CX3CR1 interaction prevents carbon tetrachloride-induced liver inflammation and fibrosis in mice.
Hepatology
52
:
1390
1400
.
38
Karlmark
K. R.
,
Zimmermann
H. W.
,
Roderburg
C.
,
Gassler
N.
,
Wasmuth
H. E.
,
Luedde
T.
,
Trautwein
C.
,
Tacke
F.
.
2010
.
The fractalkine receptor CX₃CR1 protects against liver fibrosis by controlling differentiation and survival of infiltrating hepatic monocytes.
Hepatology
52
:
1769
1782
.
39
Inui
M.
,
Ishida
Y.
,
Kimura
A.
,
Kuninaka
Y.
,
Mukaida
N.
,
Kondo
T.
.
2011
.
Protective roles of CX3CR1-mediated signals in toxin A-induced enteritis through the induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression.
J. Immunol.
186
:
423
431
.
40
Laskin
D. L.
,
Pilaro
A. M.
,
Ji
S.
.
1986
.
Potential role of activated macrophages in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. II. Mechanism of macrophage accumulation and activation.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
86
:
216
226
.
41
Sano
H.
,
Hsu
D. K.
,
Yu
L.
,
Apgar
J. R.
,
Kuwabara
I.
,
Yamanaka
T.
,
Hirashima
M.
,
Liu
F. T.
.
2000
.
Human galectin-3 is a novel chemoattractant for monocytes and macrophages.
J. Immunol.
165
:
2156
2164
.
42
Dragomir
A. C.
,
Laskin
J. D.
,
Laskin
D. L.
.
2011
.
Macrophage activation by factors released from acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes: potential role of HMGB1.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
253
:
170
177
.
43
Mensah-Brown
E. P.
,
Al Rabesi
Z.
,
Shahin
A.
,
Al Shamsi
M.
,
Arsenijevic
N.
,
Hsu
D. K.
,
Liu
F. T.
,
Lukic
M. L.
.
2009
.
Targeted disruption of the galectin-3 gene results in decreased susceptibility to multiple low dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice.
Clin. Immunol.
130
:
83
88
.
44
MacKinnon
A. C.
,
Farnworth
S. L.
,
Hodkinson
P. S.
,
Henderson
N. C.
,
Atkinson
K. M.
,
Leffler
H.
,
Nilsson
U. J.
,
Haslett
C.
,
Forbes
S. J.
,
Sethi
T.
.
2008
.
Regulation of alternative macrophage activation by galectin-3.
J. Immunol.
180
:
2650
2658
.
45
Dumić
J.
,
Lauc
G.
,
Hadzija
M.
,
Flögel
M.
.
2000
.
Transfer to in vitro conditions influences expression and intracellular distribution of galectin-3 in murine peritoneal macrophages.
Z. Naturforsch., C, J. Biosci.
55
:
261
266
.

The authors have no financial conflicts of interest.