Inflammasome activation induces the maturation and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and -18, and is dependent on NF-κB signaling to induce the transcription of the inflammasome components, called the priming step. This study elucidated the role of IκBζ, an atypical IκBs (inhibitor of κB) and a coactivator of NF-κB target genes, on the activation of inflammasome. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) that originated from IκBζ-encoding Nfkbiz gene depletion mice presented a defect in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. In addition, the Nfkbiz+/− and Nfkbiz−/− mice significantly attenuated serum IL-1β secretion in response to a monosodium urate injection, a NLRP3 trigger, when compared with Nfkbiz−+/+ mice. The lack of IκBζ in BMDMs produced a disability in the expression of Nlrp3 and pro-Il1β mRNAs during the priming step. In addition, ectopic IκBζ expression enhanced the Nlrp3 promoter activity. Overall, IκBζ controlled the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome by upregulating the Nlrp3 gene during the priming step.