Treg Heterogeneity in Allergic Airway Inflammation See article p. 1867

Development of Glcnac-Reactive B Cells See article p. 1913

Allergic airway inflammation results from uncontrolled immune responses to environmental Ags. Although it is well established that allergic immune responses exhibit a high degree of diversity, driven by primary effector cell types such as eosinophils, neutrophils, or CD4 T cells with distinct effector signatures, the mechanisms responsible for such pathogenesis remain elusive. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential immune regulators during chronic inflammation, including allergic airway inflammation. Emerging evidence suggests that Tregs infiltrating inflamed tissues exhibit distinct phenotypes dependent on the specific tissue sites and can display heterogeneity and tissue residency. Whether diverse allergic airway inflammatory responses influence infiltrating Treg heterogeneity or Treg lung residency has not been explored. We employed an unbiased single-cell RNA sequencing approach to investigate lung-infiltrating Tregs in models of eosinophilic and neutrophilic airway inflammation. We found that lung-infiltrating Tregs are highly heterogeneous, and that Tregs displaying lung-resident phenotypes are significantly different depending on the types of inflammation. Treg expression of ST2, a receptor for alarmin IL-33, was predominantly associated with eosinophilic inflammation and tissue residency. Nevertheless, Treg-specific ST2 deficiency did not affect the development of eosinophilic allergic inflammation or the generation of lung-resident Tregs. These results uncover a stark heterogeneity among Tregs infiltrating the lungs during allergic airway inflammation. The results indicate that varying types of inflammation may give rise to phenotypically distinct lung-resident Tregs, underscoring a (to our knowledge) novel mechanism by which inflammatory cues may shape the composition of infiltrating Tregs, allowing them to regulate inflammatory responses through tissue-adapted mechanisms.

Using an Ig H chain conferring specificity for N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc), we developed transgenic (VHHGAC39 TG) mice to study the role of self-antigens in GlcNAc-reactive B-1 B cell development. In VHHGAC39 TG mice, GlcNAc-reactive B-1 B cell development during ontogeny and in adult bone marrow was normal. However, adult TG mice exhibited a block at transitional-2 immature B cell stages, resulting in impaired allelic exclusion and accumulation of a B cell subset coexpressing endogenous Ig gene rearrangements. Similarly, VHHGAC39 B cell fitness was impeded compared with non-self-reactive VHJ558 B TG cells in competitive mixed bone marrow chimeras. Nonetheless, adult VHHGAC39 mice immunized with Streptococcus pyogenes produce anti-GlcNAc Abs. Peritoneal cavity B cells transferred from VHHGAC39 TG mice into RAG−/− mice also exhibited robust expansion and anti-GlcNAc Ab production. However, chronic treatment of young VHHGAC39 mice with GlcNAc-specific mAbs leads to lower GlcNAc-binding B cell frequencies while increasing the proportion of GlcNAc-binding B1-a cells, suggesting that Ag masking or clearance of GlcNAc Ags impedes maturation of newly formed GlcNAc-reactive B cells. Finally, BCR H chain editing promotes expression of endogenous nontransgenic BCR alleles, allowing potentially self-reactive TG B cells to escape anergy or deletion at the transitional stage of precursor B cell development. Collectively, these observations indicate that GlcNAc-reactive B cell development is sensitive to the access of autologous Ags.