NADPH Oxidase 2 ROS Promote CD8 T Cell Function See article p. 258

Analysis of γδ T Cells from Human Spleen See article p. 284

There is considerable interest in therapeutically engaging human γδ T cells. However, due to the unique TCRs of human γδ T cells, studies from animal models have provided limited directly applicable insights, and human γδ T cells from key immunological tissues remain poorly characterized. In this study, we investigated γδ T cells from human spleen tissue. Compared to blood, where Vδ2+Vγ9+ T cells are the dominant subset, splenic γδ T cells included a variety of TCR types, with Vδ1+ T cells typically being the most frequent. Intracellular cytokine staining revealed that IFN-γ was produced by a substantial fraction of splenic γδ T cells, IL-17A by a small fraction, and IL-4 was minimal. Primary splenic γδ T cells frequently expressed NK group 2 member D (NKG2D) and CD16, whereas expression of DNAX accessory molecule 1 (DNAM-1), CD28, PD-1, TIGIT, and CD94 varied according to subset, and there was generally little expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors, TIM-3, LAG-3, or killer Ig-like receptors. In vitro expansion was associated with marked changes in expression of these activating and inhibitory receptors. Analysis of functional responses of spleen-derived Vδ2+Vγ9+, Vδ1+Vγ9+, and Vδ1+Vγ9 T cell lines to recombinant butyrophilin BTN2A1 and BTN3A1 demonstrated that both Vδ2+Vγ9+ and Vδ1+Vγ9+ T cells were capable of responding to the extracellular domain of BTN2A1, whereas the addition of BTN3A1 only markedly enhanced the responses of Vδ2+Vγ9+ T cells. Conversely, Vδ1+Vγ9+ T cells appeared more responsive than Vδ2+Vγ9+ T cells to TCR-independent NKG2D stimulation. Thus, despite shared recognition of BTN2A1, differential effects of BTN3A1 and coreceptors may segregate target cell responses of Vδ2+Vγ9+ and Vδ1+Vγ9+ T cells.

Oxidants participate in lymphocyte activation and function. We previously demonstrated that eliminating the activity of NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) significantly impaired the effectiveness of autoreactive CD8+ CTLs. However, the molecular mechanisms impacting CD8+ T cell function remain unknown. In the present study, we examined the role of NOX2 in both NOD mouse and human CD8+ T cell function. Genetic ablation or chemical inhibition of NOX2 in CD8+ T cells significantly suppressed activation-induced expression of the transcription factor T-bet, the master transcription factor of the Tc1 cell lineage, and T-bet target effector genes such as IFN-γ and granzyme B. Inhibition of NOX2 in both human and mouse CD8+ T cells prevented target cell lysis. We identified that superoxide generated by NOX2 must be converted into hydrogen peroxide to transduce the reduction-oxidation signal in CD8+ T cells. Furthermore, we show that NOX2-generated oxidants deactivate the tumor suppressor complex leading to activation of RheB and subsequently mTOR complex 1. These results indicate that NOX2 plays a nonredundant role in TCR-mediated CD8+ T cell effector function.