1. By repeated irritation with an alkaline dust (Portland cement) or by previous infection with a virulent hemoglobinophilic bacillus, the monkey's conjunctiva was at times rendered more vulnerable to infection with Bact. granulosis.

  2. The use of the Reynals' factor or the selection of monkeys whose general resistance had been lowered by a tubercular infection, by severe malnutrition, or by the injection of benzol, did not increase the virulence of old strains of Bact. granulosis.

  3. This investigation has confirmed the observations of Noguchi; Olitsky, Knutti and Tyler and Thygeson that characteristic lesions of granular conjunctivitis (“monkey trachoma”) may be initiated in rhesus monkeys by inoculating freshly isolated, virulent strains of Bact. granulosis, but more effectively by infected monkey tissue containing Bact. granulosis. The lesions thus induced at times pass spontaneously to the uninoculated eye and are transmissible in series by injection of tissue suspensions.

  4. It was not possible to demonstrate the presence of any filtrable virus or auxiliary agent in the conjunctival lesions of monkeys which were used in transmission experiments.

  5. It was demonstrated in several monkeys which showed no gross evidence of follicles after inoculation with Noguchi's bacillus, that microscopical evidence of changes indicative of a chronic inflammation may be present. These consist of lymphocytic and plasmocellular infiltration, edema of the conjunctiva with mucoid degeneration of the cylindrical cell epithelium and congestion of the capillaries.

  6. Clinical and experimental data are presented which indicate that spontaneous folliculosis of rhesus monkeys is a disease distinct from that which is produced by the inoculation of virulent cultures of Bact. granulosis.

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Conducted under grant from the Commonwealth Fund. Present address: Mount Zion Hospital, San Francisco and Hooper Foundation, University of California.

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