CD40 Drives Central Nervous System Autoimmune Disease by Inducing Complementary Effector Programs via B Cells and Dendritic Cells
CD40 supports distinct effector programs in B cells and DCs for EAE.
CD40 expression on DCs is required for priming pathogenic Th cells.
B cell CD40 is essential for class-switched MOG-specific Ab production.
hM-R822Q Tg mice exhibit SMS-like disease phenotype.
Poly(I:C) injection induces lethal inflammation in female hM-R822Q Tg mice.
Lethal inflammation is mediated by MDA5 through MAVS, IFNAR, and JAK signaling.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Memory B Cells and Memory T Cells Induced by SARS-CoV-2 Booster Vaccination or Infection Show Different Dynamics and Responsiveness to the Omicron Variant
Memory T and B cells are present for long periods with different kinetics.
Circulating Tfh cells correlate to the Ab production of B cells.
Memory T cells, but not B cells, are fully reactive to the omicron variant.
AQ and HAQ alleles underwent natural selection during the out-of-Africa migration.
Adult AQ knock-in mice are leaner than WT or HAQ mice on a chow diet.
The second transmembrane and TM2–TM3 linker of MPYS interacts with acyl-CoA.
Numbers of CD19+ cells in B6.Baff−/− and B6.Br3−/− mice diverge as the mice age.
B cell subset profiles significantly differ between B6.Baff−/− and B6.Br3−/− mice.
CD4+Foxp3+ cells are greater in B6.Baff−/− mice than in B6.Br3−/− mice.
Germline-Encoded Positional Cysteine Polymorphisms Enhance Diversity in Antibody Ultralong CDR H3 Regions
Bovine ultralong CDR H3s use cysteine polymorphisms to generate structural diversity.
Different disulfides form between germline and mutated cysteines within CDR H3.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Reduced T Cell Priming in Microbially Experienced “Dirty” Mice Results from Limited IL-27 Production by XCR1+ Dendritic Cells
Vaccine-induced T cell expansion is blunted in dirty mice compared with SPF mice.
XCR1+ DCs from dirty mice fail to produce IL-27p28 after vaccination.
Exogenous IL-27 restores T cell expansion in dirty mice.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
The Impact of Helminth Coinfection on Innate and Adaptive Immune Resistance and Disease Tolerance during Toxoplasmosis
Helminth coinfection impairs the innate neutrophil response to T. gondii.
Coinfection impairs the CD8 T cell response quantitatively, but not qualitatively.
Helminth coinfection impairs disease tolerance during toxoplasmosis.
K. pneumoniae triggers pleuritis, bacteremia, and early mortality in old mice.
Nlrp3-dependent IL-1β release is increased in K. pneumoniae–infected old mice.
Transplantation of young bone marrow rescues old mice from fatal K. pneumoniae pneumonia.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
FABP5 in myeloid cells controls LPS-induced liver injury and M1 polarization.
FABP5 deletion increases unsaturated fatty acids in LPS-treated macrophages.
FABP5 and oleic acid master LPS-induced M1 polarization by the AMPK/NF-κB pathway.
STAT6-IP–Dependent Disruption of IL-33–Mediated ILC2 Expansion and Type 2 Innate Immunity in the Murine Lung
STAT6-IP immunomodulatory peptide inhibits lung ILC2 expansion in response to IL-33.
Targeting innate immune cells by STAT6-IP durably reduces type 2 inflammation.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Novel Dimeric Architecture of an IFN-γ–Related Cytokine Provides Insights into Subfunctionalization of Type II IFNs in Teleost Fish
Carp IFN-γrel dimer is connected by two pairs of disulphide bonds.
Carp IFN-γrel interacts with CRFB17 and CRFB13 to induce STAT1 phosphorylation.
Carp IFN-γrel has a narrower spectrum of functions than IFN-γ.
A Novel Organized Nasopharynx-Associated Lymphoid Tissue in Teleosts That Expresses Molecular Markers Characteristic of Mammalian Germinal Centers
Discovery of a lymphoid structure in the nasal cavity of rainbow trout called O-NALT.
Trout O-NALT expresses high levels of aicda at the steady state.
IgM+ B cells proliferate and enter apoptosis in trout O-NALT.
CCL17 expression is increased in colitis-associated colon tumors.
Single-housed CCL17-deficient mice develop fewer tumors dependent on the microbiota.
Reduced tumor numbers coincide with increased apoptosis during tumor initiation.
NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
Detection of Low-Frequency Epitope-Specific T Cells in Blood of Healthy Individuals according to an Optimized In Vitro Amplification System
Easy-to-implement in vitro amplification of specific T cells from healthy donors is described.
Robust amplification of viral- or tumor-specific T cells with low frequencies in blood is shown.
Parameters required for amplification of epitope-specific T cells are identified.
On the cover: Rainbow trout nasal cavity is lined by a lymphoepithelium that surrounds the olfactory organ (rosette). The novel nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue contains clusters of B and T cells and expresses hallmarks of mammalian germinal centers. Garcia, B., F. Dong, E. Casadei, J. Rességuier, J. Ma, K. D. Cain, P. A. Castrillo, Z. Xu, and I. Salinas. 2022. A novel organized nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue in teleosts that expresses molecular markers characteristic of mammalian germinal centers. J. Immunol. 209: 2215–2226.
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