IN THIS ISSUE
Cutting Edge: Role of MASP-3 in the Physiological Activation of Factor D of the Alternative Complement Pathway
MASP-1 is required for physiological LP activation.
MASP-3 circulates predominantly in an active form regardless of the role of MASP-1.
MASP-3 is pivotal for physiological AP activation via activation of FD.
Dendritic Cell Accumulation in the Gut and Central Nervous System Is Differentially Dependent on α4 Integrins
α4 integrins are dispensable for cDCs and pDCs to populate the CNS in steady-state.
Itga4−/− moDCs have a competitive disadvantage to accumulate in the inflamed CNS.
Accumulation of CD11b+CD103+ DCs in gut lamina propria is dependent on α4 integrins.
Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Vitamin D concentrations in COPD patients were lower than concentrations in controls.
TGF-β/Smad signaling and EMT were increased in COPD patients compared with controls.
Vitamin D status was inversely correlated with EMT in COPD patients.
Intracellular cAMP regulates CD39-dependent adenosine production in Tregs.
Extracellular cAMP directly participates in Treg-derived adenosine production.
Increasing the intracellular cAMP level improves the therapeutic efficacy of iTregs.
TNF Receptor–Associated Factor 5 Limits Function of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by Controlling IFN Regulatory Factor 5 Expression
TRAF5 deficiency accelerates wound healing by promoting activation of pDCs.
TRAF5 controls proinflammatory cytokine production by pDCs via IRF5.
IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
IL-33 is expressed during early B cell development in both mice and humans.
Deficiency of IL-33 promotes B cell fitness via a cell-endogenous mechanism.
IL-33 expression is modulated in B cell malignancies.
Fetal and adult blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells express a different CDR3 repertoire.
The postnatal thymus produces a small number of Vγ9Vδ2 thymocytes.
Adult blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells are derived from postnatal Vγ9Vδ2 thymocytes.
Trout have limited IgM and IgT repertoire diversity in NALT.
Intranasal vaccination in trout triggers systemic and mucosal Ig response.
IgM and IgT respond to i.p. and intranasal bacterin vaccination.
Regulation of the Germinal Center Reaction and Somatic Hypermutation Dynamics by Homologous Recombination
HR supports germinal center B cell survival and Ab affinity maturation.
HR is active at the hypermutating Ig locus and influences the SHM mutation pattern.
The magnitude of A:T mutagenesis during SHM of the Ig V region increases over time.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
A Novel Vaccine Strategy to Overcome Poor Immunogenicity of Avian Influenza Vaccines through Mobilization of Memory CD4 T Cells Established by Seasonal Influenza
Human CD4 T cells have limited cross-reactive memory to avian H7 proteins.
CD4 T cell help can be provided to B cells with novel H7/H3 chimeric vaccines.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
T Cell–Intrinsic IL-6R Signaling Is Required for Optimal ICOS Expression and Viral Control during Chronic Infection
IL-6R signaling on T cells is essential for controlling chronic viral infection.
IL-6R signaling on T cells is required for optimal Ab development.
IL-6 signaling on T cells regulates ICOS expression on Tfh cells.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Inflammatory agent exposure causes c-Abl to interact with and phosphorylate PARP1.
Tyrosine phosphorylation of PARP1 is crucial for NF-κB activation and gene expression.
The BACH1–HMOX1 Regulatory Axis Is Indispensable for Proper Macrophage Subtype Specification and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration
BACH1 and myeloid HMOX1 are required for complete muscle regeneration upon acute injury.
BACH1–HMOX1 axis is required for coordinated in situ MF phenotype switch.
BACH1 regulates inflammatory and repair gene modules in MFs during tissue injury.
A Long Noncoding RNA, Antisense IL-7, Promotes Inflammatory Gene Transcription through Facilitating Histone Acetylation and Switch/Sucrose Nonfermentable Chromatin Remodeling
The transcription of IL-7–AS is dependent on the NF-κB/MAPK pathway.
IL-7–AS promotes the expression of CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, and IL6.
IL-7–AS interacts with p300 and SWI/SNF complex.
YIPF5 Is Essential for Innate Immunity to DNA Virus and Facilitates COPII-Dependent STING Trafficking
YIPF5 positively regulates STING-mediated IFN production signaling.
YIPF5 is essential for antiviral response against DNA viruses.
YIPF5 facilitates STING trafficking by recruiting STING to COPII-coated vesicles.
Complement Component C5 and TLR Molecule CD14 Mediate Heme-Induced Thromboinflammation in Human Blood
Heme induces complement-dependent thromboinflammation in human whole blood.
Heme-induced proinflammatory cytokines and tissue factor are C5 dependent.
Combined inhibition of C5 and CD14 attenuate prothrombin cleavage.
A Negative Feedback Loop Regulates Integrin Inactivation and Promotes Neutrophil Recruitment to Inflammatory Sites
A negative feedback loop, integrin–PI3K–ARAP3–integrin, controls integrin inactivation.
Integrin inactivation promotes neutrophil transendothelial migration and recruitment.
Retinoids Enhance the Expression of Cathelicidin Antimicrobial Peptide during Reactive Dermal Adipogenesis
Retinoids enhance cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide expression during adipogenesis.
The action of retinoids is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α.
The capacity to induce cathelicidin may explain some therapeutic effects of retinoids.
Low Cellular NAD+ Compromises Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses via Inhibiting TLR4 Signal Transduction in Human Monocytes
NAD+ depletion attenuates TLR4 signal transduction in primary human monocytes.
The mechanism involves inhibition of protein phosphorylation in the signal cascade.
The proteins in the signal pathway are not quantitatively changed by NAD+ depletion.
Influenza vaccination primes myeloid cells for enhanced cytokine secretion.
Vaccine-enhanced myeloid cytokines boost NK cell responses to influenza virus.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Peptides with β-amino acids can bind tightly to MHC-II and activate TCR signaling.
Incorporation of β-amino acids enhances resistance to degradation by protease(s).
A selected β-amino acid–containing peptide stimulated T cells in mice.
KIR3DL1 allotypes impact the development of Behçet disease.
This association appears to be independent of the effect of HLA-B*51.
Different KIR3DL1 allotypes are associated with mucocutaneous and ophthalmic disease.
TRIM58 interacts with TLR2, negatively regulating its expression in myeloid cells.
Myeloid cell Trim58 deficiency increases susceptibility to acute colitis via Tlr2.
Mucosal expression of human TRIM58 is reduced in active ulcerative colitis.
Phenotypic and Ig Repertoire Analyses Indicate a Common Origin of IgD−CD27− Double Negative B Cells in Healthy Individuals and Multiple Sclerosis Patients
DN B cells are abnormally elevated in MS patients but have the same origin as in HC.
DN B cells resemble CSM B cells but appear to be at an earlier maturation state.
DN and CSM B cells undergo unique differentiation pathways.
EBV Latency III–Transformed B Cells Are Inducers of Conventional and Unconventional Regulatory T Cells in a PD-L1–Dependent Manner
EBV latency III B cells display an immunosuppressive profile similar to Bregs.
They repress proliferation of T cells and promote expansion of cTregs and uTregs.
Expansion of Tregs depends on PD-L1 whose expression depends on the EBV oncogene LMP1.
Correction: Bcl2L12 Contributes to Th2-Biased Inflammation in the Intestinal Mucosa by Regulating CD4+ T Cell Activities
On the cover: Tree map showing the CDR3δ repertoire of sorted fetal blood Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. Each square represents one CDR3 clonotype; the size of the square corresponds to its relative frequency in the repertoire. Papadopoulou, M., P. Tieppo, N. McGovern, F. Gosselin, J. K. Y. Chan, G. Goetgeluk, N. Dauby, A. Cogan, C. Donner, F. Ginhoux, B. Vandekerckhove, and D. Vermijlen. 2019. TCR sequencing reveals the distinct development of fetal and adult human Vγ9Vδ2 T cells. J. Immunol. 203: 1468–1479.
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