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J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2501.

IMMUNOLOGY NOTES AND RESOURCES

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2503–2507.

BRIEF REVIEWS

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2509–2520.

CUTTING EDGE

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2521–2526.

  • Myo18A maintains the number of progenitor and mature B cells.

  • Myo18A restricts B cell differentiation into Ab-secreting cells.

  • Myo18A regulates autoreactive and Ag-specific B cell Ab responses.

ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2527–2535.

  • Six epitopes were identified in the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 in macaques.

  • A peptide mixture was established for T cell response detection.

AUTOIMMUNITY

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2536–2543.

  • Th17 and Th1/Th17 cells infiltrate pituitaries in a mouse model of hypophysitis.

  • Hypophysitis patients show increased pituitary IL-17A, CD4, and CIITA mRNA levels.

  • Presence of TGF-β mRNA is associated with lower pituitary IL-17A in hypophysitis.

IMMUNE REGULATION

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2544–2551.

  • CD45 is required for optimal activation of CD22-mediated signal inhibition.

  • CD22 is a substrate of SHP-1 essential for regulation of CD22 by its glycan ligands.

  • Sialic acid–dependent CD22 homo-clustering may augment SHP-1 interaction with CD22.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2552–2565.

  • mRNA stability is critical for optimal CD40L expression and TFH cell function.

  • Decreased CD40L results in a loss of GL7+ GC B cells and a disorganized GC.

  • GC B cell differentiation is particularly sensitive to CD40 signaling thresholds.

IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2566–2582.

  • Highly conserved B and T cell epitopes are identified in human and animal coronaviruses.

  • Cross-reactive coronavirus epitopes are recognized by COVID-19 and healthy patients.

  • Conserved SARS-CoV-2 epitopes are immunogenic in humanized HLA-transgenic mice.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2583–2595.

  • Extended ABX treatment yielded higher affinity IgG following immunization.

  • Extended ABX treatment resulted in enhanced pathology in a nephrotoxic nephritis model.

  • PD-1 blockade phenocopied extended ABX following immunizations.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2596–2604.

  • VacV-S immunization activates S-specific T cells.

  • Immunization expands T cells that primarily target the S1 domain of spike.

  • Spike-specific IgG-neutralizing Abs form following VacV-S immunization.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2605–2613.

  • Increased plasmblasts/activated RBD-specific MBCs are observed in SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • RBD/S/NP titers increase over infection; RBD titers correlate with neutralization.

  • RBD-specific Ab depletion greatly reduces neutralization in most individuals.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2614–2622.

  • Anti–SARS-CoV-2 neutralization titers are stable for at least 7 mo postinfection.

  • A testing strategy is suggested for identification of high neutralization titers.

  • There is weak association between neutralization titers and Rhesus Ag RhD.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2623–2637.

  • M. tuberculosis–induced upregulation of β-arrestin 2 suppressed Mφ immune responses.

  • β-Arrestin 2 inhibits signaling from TLR2 to ERK1/2 in M. tuberculosis–infected Mφ.

  • β-Arrestin 2 regulates downstream TNF-α gene transcription of ERK1/2 through CREB1.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2638–2651.

  • CD16+ MDDCs exhibit high RALDH activity upon exposure to bacterial/fungal pathogens.

  • CD16+ MDDCs promote HIV trans infection in S. aureus–reactive CD4+ T cells.

  • MDDCs loaded in bacterial/fungal pathogens promote HIV outgrowth in CD4+ T cells.

INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2652–2667.

  • NFAT5 amplifies TLR-induced antipathogen transcription responses.

  • NFAT5 induces chromatin accessibility and H3K27me3 demethylation.

  • NFAT5 facilitates recruitment of p65/NF-κB and c-Fos to promoters.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2668–2681.

  • Both DNA and RNA viruses, including HSV, IAV, and SeV, can induce ATP1B1 expression.

  • ATP1B1 limits viral replication by inducing IFNs and inflammatory cytokines.

  • ATP1B1 induces IFNs and inflammatory cytokines by targeting TRAF6/TRAF3.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2682–2691.

  • UBXN6 is a positive regulator of both primary and secondary IFN responses.

  • UBXN6 maintains IFNAR1 and TYK2 protein stability.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2692–2699.

  • Galectin-9 inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation by promoting NLRP3 degradation.

  • Galectin-9 facilitates p62-dependent autophagic degradation of NLRP3.

MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2700–2713.

  • Control regions at B cell genes are often accessible in multipotent progenitors.

  • EBF1 and PAX5 target mainly accessible elements annotated to B lineage genes.

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2714–2724.

  • Multiple proinflammatory effects of Tc2 cells are inhibited by DP2 antagonism.

  • Tissue-remodeling functions of Tc2 cells are attenuated by DP2 antagonism.

  • Autocrine/paracrine PGD2 production in Tc2 cells is reduced by DP2 antagonism.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2725–2739.

  • MicroRNA-142 isoforms critically regulate ILC2 homeostasis and effector functions.

  • MicroRNA-142 isoforms regulate the ILC2 lineage cell intrinsically.

  • Socs1 and Gfi1 are miR-142 isoform regulated targets in ILC2s.

TUMOR IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2740–2752.

  • IL-9 inhibits breast and cervical cancer cell migration in a 3D experimental system.

  • IL-9 reduces ECM remodeling capability and cellular contractility.

  • IL-9 suppresses IL-17– and IFN-γ–mediated metastasis of cancer cells.

NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2753–2762.

  • Sets of mAbs specific for the macrolide toxin mycolactone have been generated.

  • Two selected mAbs enabled development of a highly sensitive capture ELISA.

  • The assay has potential for conversion into a rapid diagnostic test for Buruli ulcer.

LETTERS OF RETRACTION

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2763.

CORRECTIONS

J Immunol (2021) 206 (11): 2764–2765.
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