Stromal Immunology: Frameworks for Development and Response
PILLARS OF IMMUNOLOGY
A 2020 View of Thymus Stromal Cells in T Cell Development
Development and Immunological Function of Lymph Node Stromal Cells
Afferent Lymphatic Transport and Peripheral Tissue Immunity
Regulation of Immune Responses by Nonhematopoietic Cells in Asthma
Immune Cell–Stromal Circuitry in Lupus Photosensitivity
Cutting Edge: NOX2 NADPH Oxidase Controls Infection by an Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen through Limiting the Type 1 IFN Response
NOX2 deficiency promotes systemic L. monocytogenes infection in a type I IFN–dependent manner.
NOX2 limits ISG expression in response to type I IFN.
Cutting Edge: Severe SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Humans Is Defined by a Shift in the Serum Lipidome, Resulting in Dysregulation of Eicosanoid Immune Mediators
Systemic lipidomic changes distinguish COVID-19 disease severity in humans.
Lipidomic changes correspond to different levels of immune lipid mediators.
Lipid mediator differences correlate with BMI, hypertension, and heart disease.
Granzyme B Induces IRF-3 Phosphorylation through a Perforin-Independent Proteolysis-Dependent Signaling Cascade without Inducing Cell Death
GrB-induced intracellular cleavage and phosphorylation events do not need perforin.
These cleavages and phosphorylations require GrB enzyme activity.
DDR and IRF-3 phosphorylation are some of the functional results of these events.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Flagellin-Specific CD4 Cytokine Production in Crohn Disease and Controls Is Limited to a Small Subset of Antigen-Induced CD40L+ T Cells
Only a small subset of flagellin-induced CD40LhiCD4 cells express cytokines.
This CD40LhiCD4 cytokine production is restricted to T effector memory cells.
IL-17A–Secreting Memory γδ T Cells Play a Pivotal Role in Sensitization and Development of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
IL-17A is produced mainly by γδ T cells in hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP).
The IL-17A/chemokines/CD11b+ alveolar macrophage axis underlies development of HP.
Memory responses of γδ T cells are involved in sensitization and development of HP.
Arf1 and Arf6 Synergistically Maintain Survival of T Cells during Activation
Arf1 and Arf6 are dispensable for cytokine secretion in T cells.
Arf1 and Arf6 redundantly protect activated naive T cells from apoptosis.
Loss of Arf1 and Arf6 in T cells alleviates autoimmune diseases.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
AdrA as a Potential Immunomodulatory Candidate for STING-Mediated Antiviral Therapy That Required Both Type I IFN and TNF-α Production
Antiviral activity of the c-di-GMP cyclase AdrA is STING dependent.
An optimal AdrA-induced response requires synergistic action of type I IFN and TNF-α.
Harnessing the Versatility of Invariant NKT Cells in a Stepwise Approach to Sepsis Immunotherapy
In vivo priming with OCH does not curb subsequent iNKT cell responses to α-GalCer.
Sequential treatment with OCH and α-GalCer reduces CLP-induced mortality.
α-GalCer treatment of OCH-primed septic mice restores their immunocompetence.
IRF3 Signaling within the Mouse Stroma Influences Sepsis Pathogenesis
IRF3 contributes to sepsis in a mouse model incorporating antibiotics and fluids.
IRF3 acts in stromal cells (nonleukocytes) to mediate this effect.
IRF3 indirectly alters macrophage behavior and the inflammatory network in sepsis.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Adenovirus Vector–Induced IL-6 Promotes Leaky Adenoviral Gene Expression, Leading to Acute Hepatotoxicity
Suppression of leaky Ad gene expression in the liver attenuated acute hepatotoxicity.
IL-6 enhanced leaky Ad gene expression and Ad vector–induced cytotoxicity.
Acute hepatotoxicity and leaky Ad gene expression were reduced in IL-6 KO mice.
Integration of the Transcriptome and Genome-Wide Landscape of BRD2 and BRD4 Binding Motifs Identifies Key Superenhancer Genes and Reveals the Mechanism of Bet Inhibitor Action in Rheumatoid Arthritis Synovial Fibroblasts
BET inhibitor JQ1 downregulated BRD2/BRD4 superenhancer genes in RA-FLS.
JQ1 inhibited key inflammatory pathways in activated RA-FLS.
JQ1 altered the chromatin occupancy of proinflammatory transcription factors.
NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
In Vivo Functions of Mouse Neutrophils Derived from HoxB8-Transduced Conditionally Immortalized Myeloid Progenitors
HoxB8 progenitor–derived neutrophils can repopulate irradiated mice.
HoxB8 chimeras are useful for the in vivo analysis of neutrophil functions.
Methylation-Sensitive Restriction Enzyme Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Enables Rapid, Accurate, and Precise Detection of Methylation Status of the Regulatory T Cell (Treg)-Specific Demethylation Region in Primary Human Tregs
MSRE-qPCR is an accurate and rapid method to determine TSDR methylation status.
MSRE-qPCR produces similar results to previously described orthogonal methods.
On the cover: Three-dimensional reconstruction of an inguinal lymph node from Ccl19-Cre EYFP mice (B cells, white; fibroblastic reticular cells, green, pink, or yellow; high endothelial venule and blood vessels, pink). Pseudocolor mode has been applied for artistic appeal. Image provided by Lucas Onder.
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