MAP3K8 Regulates Cox-2–Mediated Prostaglandin E2 Production in the Lung and Suppresses Pulmonary Inflammation and Fibrosis
Pulmonary fibrosis entails a transcriptional downregulation of Map3k8 expression.
Map3k8 suppress pulmonary fibrosis via Cox-2–mediated PGE2 production.
A Critical Role for Na+/H+ Exchanger Regulatory Factor 1 in Modulating FcεRI-Mediated Mast Cell Activation
NHERF1 promotes mast cell activation following FcεRI stimulation in vitro.
NHERF1 regulates IgE-mediated, mast cell–dependent anaphylactic reactions in vivo.
NHERF1 localized to the mast cell nucleus following IgE/Ag stimulation.
GSK3 Restrains Germinal Center B Cells to Form Plasma Cells
GSK3–c-Myc–IRF4 regulatory axis induces CD138+ Ab-secreting cell formation.
GSK3 inactivation facilitated the LZ to DZ transition via increasing Foxo1.
Spatiotemporal control of GSK3 activity may be a key regulator of the GC reaction.
Suppression of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by ILT3.Fc
The onset and evolution of EAE in C57BL/6 mice is significantly delayed by ILT3.Fc.
ILT3.Fc inhibits T cell production of IL-17 and IFN-γ and migration through BMEC.
Deletion of CD8 T cells abrogates the inhibitory effect of ILT3.Fc.
Peculiar Phenotypic and Cytotoxic Features of Pulmonary Mucosal CD8 T Cells in People Living with HIV Receiving Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy
Pulmonary mucosal CD8 T cells are highly differentiated, activated, and exhausted.
BAL versus blood CD8 T cells showed lower perforin/granzyme B expression.
BAL CD8 T cells display reduced target killing ability compared to blood CD8 T cells.
Salmonella Flagellin Activates NAIP/NLRC4 and Canonical NLRP3 Inflammasomes in Human Macrophages
Salmonella infection leads to NAIP/NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Flagellin activates the NAIP/NLRC4 and NLRP3 inflammasome in human macrophages.
Flagellin mediates NLRP3 activation in a ROS- and/or cathepsin-dependent manner.
Enhanced Proliferation of Ly6C+ Monocytes/Macrophages Contributes to Chronic Inflammation in Skin Wounds of Diabetic Mice
Mo/MΦ proliferate at higher rates in wounds of diabetic compared with nondiabetic mice.
CCL2/CCR2 signaling promotes wound Mo/MΦ proliferation in mice.
A Highly Specific Assay for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2–Reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in COVID-19 Patients
Spike-reactive T cells are present in all convalescent COVID-19 patients.
NCAP and VEMP are possible targets for treatment and diagnosis.
SARS-CoV-2–reactive T cells cannot be detected in unexposed individuals.
Cutting Edge: Heterogeneity in Cell Age Contributes to Functional Diversity of NK Cells
Homeostatic turnover generates heterogeneity in cell age among naive group 1 ILCs.
Turnover of tissue-resident ILC1s is slower than that of circulating NK cells.
Older NK cells mount more robust adaptive responses during CMV infection.
CD4+CTLs in Fibrosing Mediastinitis Linked to Histoplasma capsulatum
In fibrosing mediastinitis, CD4+CD4+CTLs accumulate in lesions.
CD4+CTLs in the blood of patients respond to H. capsulatum Ags in vitro.
Low Vitamin D Status Is Associated with Inflammation in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Vitamin D was decreased and inflammation was increased in COPD patients.
NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways were activated in COPD patients.
Vitamin D was inversely correlated with inflammatory signaling in COPD patients.
Deletion of S100a8 and S100a9 Enhances Skin Hyperplasia and Promotes the Th17 Response in Imiquimod-Induced Psoriasis
S100a8- and S100a9-deficient mice have worsened psoriasis.
S100A8 and S100A9 inhibit IL-17 production.
Ubiquitination of MHC Class II by March-I Regulates Dendritic Cell Fitness
MHC-II ubiquitination–mutant spleen DCs are functionally defective.
MHC-II ubiquitination–mutant DCs have an altered gene expression profile.
DC activation reverses the functional defects in MHC-II ubiquitination–mutant DCs.
The miR-23a∼27a∼24-2 microRNA Cluster Promotes Inflammatory Polarization of Macrophages
mirn23a miRNAs repress inflammatory signaling in myeloid progenitors.
mirn23a−/− macrophages have enhanced M2 polarization and decreased responses to LPS.
mirn23a−/− macrophages enhance the growth of syngeneic tumors in vivo.
Simultaneous Aerosol and Intramuscular Immunization with Influenza Vaccine Induces Powerful Protective Local T Cell and Systemic Antibody Immune Responses in Pigs
Simultaneous aerosol and i.m. immunization reduces viral load and pathology.
Simultaneous immunization induces strong protective local and systemic responses.
The hierarchy of NP-specific T cells in blood does not reflect local lung responses.
Repurposed Tocilizumab in Patients with Severe COVID-19
Tocilizumab could prolong survival among hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19.
Tocilizumab weakens the inflammatory response while sustaining immune responses.
During the tocilizumab treatment, no severe adverse drug reactions were reported.
Vitamin D3–Induced Promotor Dissociation of PU.1 and YY1 Results in FcεRI Reduction on Dendritic Cells in Atopic Dermatitis
Vitamin D3 reduces FcεRI expression on epidermal DC in atopic dermatitis.
This is independent of activation and results in impaired FcεRI-mediated function.
Vitamin D3 causes dissociation of PU.1 and YY1 from the FcεRI α-chain promotor.
Dysregulation of the RIG-I–like Receptor Pathway Signaling by Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus Phosphoprotein
PPRV P protein inhibits type I IFN production.
PPRV P protein interacts with IRF3 to block the interaction between TBK1 and IRF3.
The 1–102 region of P protein is critical for the antagonistic function of P protein.
Semaphorin 3E Promotes Susceptibility to Leishmania major Infection in Mice by Suppressing CD4+ Th1 Cell Response
Sema3E suppresses CD11C+ cells and T cell functions during L. major infection.
The deficiency of Sema3E leads to enhanced resistance to L. major infection.
On the cover: The subcellular localization of IRF3 (red) and peste des petits ruminants virus P protein mutant (green) in poly(I:C)-transfected cells was determined by indirect fluorescence assay. The presence of P protein mutant with the deletion of 1–102 aa did not affect IRF3 nuclear import induced by poly (I:C). Li, P., Z. Zhu, W. Cao, F. Yang, X. Ma, H. Tian, K. Zhang, X. Liu, and H. Zheng. 2021. Dysregulation of the RIG-I–like receptor pathway signaling by peste des petits ruminants virus phosphoprotein. J. Immunol. 206: 566–579.
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