LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Cbl-b is induced in IL-15/IL-2/K562–activated primary human NK cells.
Abrogation of Cbl-b enhances cytotoxicity of primary human NK cells.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Synergistic Effect of Two Nanotechnologies Enhances the Protective Capacity of the Theileria parva Sporozoite p67C Antigen in Cattle
Multimerization of p67C Ag as nanoparticle increases its immunogenicity.
Vaccine efficacy of p67C Ag increases delivered as nanoparticles.
Effective and Safe Stimulation of Humoral and Cell-Mediated Immunity by Intradermal Immunization with a Cyclic Dinucleotide/Nanoparticle Combination Adjuvant
The combination of cdAMP and Nano-11 has synergistic effects on activation of DCs.
ID immunization with cdAMP/Nano-11 adjuvant induces a robust balanced immune response.
The cdAMP/Nano-11 adjuvant increases uptake of Ag by migratory and resident DCs.
Novel SIRPα Antibodies That Induce Single-Agent Phagocytosis of Tumor Cells while Preserving T Cells
SIRP Abs SIRP-1 and SIRP-2 induce macrophage phagocytosis of cancer cells.
They employ unique mechanisms to disrupt SIRPα/CD47 checkpoint and engage FcγRs.
SIRP-1 and SIRP-2 combine with targeted Abs including anti-CD47 mAb AO-176.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Acidic Calcium-Independent Phospholipase A2 Regulates Eosinophil-Mediated Pathology during Filarial Manifestation of Tropical Pulmonary Eosinophilia
aiPLA2-mediated production of inflammatory lipids drives lung pathological condition during TPE.
IgG cross-linking on eosinophils activates aiPLA2 activity.
Pharmacological inhibition of aiPLA2 improves TPE-associated lung histopathology.
Histidine-Rich Glycoprotein Stimulates Human Neutrophil Phagocytosis and Prolongs Survival through CLEC1A
HRG induces the phagocytic activity of human neutrophils against E. coli and S. aureus.
HRG induces shape change of human neutrophils and prolongs the survival time.
The effect of HRG on human neutrophils is mediated by CLEC1A receptor.
Transcriptional Diversity and Niche-Specific Distribution of Leukocyte Populations during Staphylococcus aureus Craniotomy-Associated Biofilm Infection
Leukocyte influx occurs in specific niches during S. aureus craniotomy infection.
S. aureus craniotomy infection elicits transcriptional diversity in myeloid cells.
PMNs are critical for S. aureus containment but not biofilm clearance.
Intestinal IL-17R Signaling Controls Secretory IgA and Oxidase Balance in Citrobacter rodentium Infection
Intestinal IL-17R signaling plays a beneficial role in infectious colitis.
Intestinal IL-17R signaling regulates ASC generation and transport of SIgA.
Expression of oxidases during infectious colitis requires intestinal IL-17R.
Replication-competent VACV inhibits skin DC migration to draining lymph node.
The VACV-suppressive effect is a general phenomenon of VACV infection in the skin.
VACV can access the lymph node in the absence of DC transport and prime CD4+ T cells.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
TNF-α Regulates Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by Suppressing IFN-α Production and Enhancing T Cell Activation
TNF downregulates IFN-α and TNF production by human pDCs.
TNF downregulates IRF7 and NF-κB pathways and upregulates Ag processing in pDCs.
TNF enhances Ag presentation and T cell activation properties in pDCs.
eCIRP induces NET formation, causing inhibition of efferocytosis during sepsis.
NE of NETs disrupts αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in macrophages to inhibit efferocytosis.
Hyperglycemic Memory of Innate Immune Cells Promotes In Vitro Proinflammatory Responses of Human Monocytes and Murine Macrophages
Hyperglycemia promotes trained immunity of monocytes/macrophages.
MLL mediates hyperglycemia-induced trained immunity.
Loss of ADAP enhances TLR4-mediated M1 polarization via attenuating STAT3 activation.
LPS triggers ADAP Y571 phosphorylation, which is required to prime STAT3 activation.
ADAP modulates STAT3 phosphorylation selectively via IL-6 signaling.
Adherence Affects Monocyte Innate Immune Function and Metabolic Reprogramming after Lipopolysaccharide Stimulation In Vitro
Nonadherent monocytes produce more TNF and IL-1β upon LPS stimulation.
Adherent, but not nonadherent, monocytes induce glycolysis upon stimulation.
Treatment with 2DG, but not glucose deprivation, influences monocyte functions.
Intrinsic Abnormalities of Keratinocytes Initiate Skin Inflammation through the IL-23/T17 Axis in a MALT1-Dependent Manner
Ablation of the IL-23/T17 axis restrains the skin inflammation in Card14E138A/+ mice.
CBM complex in keratinocyte initiates psoriasis-like skin inflammation.
MALT1 paracaspase activity could be a promising therapeutic target for psoriasis.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
The Role of the HLA Class I α2 Helix in Determining Ligand Hierarchy for the Killer Cell Ig-like Receptor 3DL1
NK cells are differentially inhibited by HLA-ABw4 interactions with KIR3DL1.
Residues within the HLA class I α2 helix contribute to defining KIR3DL1 ligands.
KIR3DL1 binds HLA-ABw4 ligands via the same contacts as HLA-BBw4 ligands.
Inhibition of the Complement Alternative Pathway by Chemically Modified DNA Aptamers That Bind with Picomolar Affinity to Factor B
We have identified a family of modified DNA aptamers that bind to human factor B.
Studies on these modified aptamers reveal how they inhibit C3 convertase formation.
These modified aptamers may prove useful for therapeutic inhibition of factor B.
Maternal and Cord Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Are Associated with Increased Cord Blood and Naive and Activated Regulatory T Cells: The Barwon Infant Study
Most maternal (28-wk gestation) 25(OH)D3 levels were above 50 nmol/l.
Maternal 25(OH)D3 levels were positively associated with cord blood Treg levels.
Cord blood 25(OH)D3 levels were associated with activated Treg levels.
Network Analysis Reveals a Distinct Axis of Macrophage Activation in Response to Conflicting Inflammatory Cues
A computational model of the signaling network for macrophage activation is developed.
Conflicting cues induced a “mixed” activation state not seen with single cues.
Knockdown simulations predict mechanisms underlying mutual inhibition or activation.
MyD88 Costimulation in Donor CD8+ T Cells Enhances the Graft-versus-Tumor Effect in Murine Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation
MyD88 costimulation in donor CD8+ T cells improves the graft-versus-tumor effect.
MyD88-costimulated CD8+ T cells are more activated with improved cytotoxic function.
Moderate exercise reduces inflammaging, liver tumors, and chronic liver disease.
Key molecular changes include lipid metabolism, oxidative damage, and senescence.
Increased NAD+, sirtuin activity, and inflammatory and metabolic reprogramming occur.
On the cover: Representation of the contact site between complement factor B (molecular surface) and the modified DNA aptamer SL1103 (stick model). In this issue, Xu and Zhang et al. show that SL1103 binds complement factor B with picomolar affinity, thereby blocking formation of the alternative pathway C3 convertase and inhibiting complement activation. Xu, X., C. Zhang, D. T. Denton, D. O’Connell, D. W. Drolet, and B. V. Geisbrecht. 2021. Inhibition of the complement alternative pathway by chemically modified DNA aptamers that bind with picomolar affinity to factor B. J. Immunol. 206: 861–873.
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