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J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1407–1408.

BRIEF REVIEWS

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1409–1417.

CUTTING EDGE

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1419–1423.

  • EPHB2 is a coreceptor for the recognition of β-glucan in macrophages.

  • EPHB2 is a kinase for Syk and is required for Syk phosphorylation and activation.

ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1425–1435.

  • MAIT cells have varying capacities to produce effector cytokines when activated.

  • MAIT cells have transcriptional signatures associated with early effector function.

  • TCR-dependent activation can be enhanced by addition of the KDM6B cofactor α-KG.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1436–1442.

  • PE-ICs cycle at a time scale of ∼1 h in murine FDCs.

  • The trade-off between Ag protection and B cell uptake impacts GCs.

  • An in-silico Ag cycling blockade terminated GC reactions.

AUTOIMMUNITY

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1443–1453.

  • High-risk relatives of T1D have significantly more IR+ T cells than T1D or controls.

  • A new transgenic mouse has insulitis in the pancreas via IR on T cells, but not T1D.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1454–1468.

  • Rilzabrutinib oral BTK inhibitor has long residence time and low systemic exposure.

  • Rilzabrutinib shows multiple mechanisms of adaptive and innate immune responses.

  • Preclinical data support clinical use of rilzabrutinib for immune-mediated diseases.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1469–1477.

  • Skin insults abruptly induce LRG, which warrants the proinflammatory responses.

  • Lrg deficiency leads to mitigated psoriasiform lesions in model mice.

  • LRG exerts feed-forward/feedback effects on skin inflammation via the skin–liver axis.

CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1478–1482.

  • Distribution of T cell subsets is altered in COVID-19 compared to healthy subjects.

  • Cytotoxic and Th1 cells are activated and proliferating in COVID-19.

  • Activated and proliferating Th1 cells negatively correlate with plasma IL-6.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1483–1492.

  • A type 1–immune bias is more common in patients with IDH1R132H mutant than IDHwt AA.

  • AA progression is associated with a type 1 to type 2 shift in systemic immune bias.

  • Type 2–immune bias, tumor vascular leakage, and TAM levels indicate poor AA prognosis.

IMMUNE REGULATION

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1493–1504.

  • Influenza-specific memory B cells have accessible chromatin structure.

  • Human and mouse memory B cells upregulate heme metabolic pathways.

  • Heme enhances PC differentiation and augments mitochondrial metabolism ex vivo.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1505–1514.

  • IKAROS ZF1 is crucial for normal development and function of B cells, but not T cells.

  • The L132P mutation in IKAROS confers a CVID-like phenotype in mice.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1515–1527.

  • The Zinc finger protein, Zbtb18, is downregulated during PC differentiation.

  • Enhanced expression of Zbtb18 leads to impaired PC development.

  • Zbtb18 directly binds and inhibits expression of PI3K subunits.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1528–1539.

  • DCs from old mice show decrease of TRIM28 transcription and phosphorylation.

  • TRIM28 loss on DCs augments T cell priming that exacerbates EAE reaction.

  • Dysregulated endogenous retroelements drive inflammatory gene expression.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1540–1548.

  • Nrf2 regulates IL-22 responses in CD4+ T cells.

  • Nrf2 activation inhibits IL-17A response in multiple sclerosis patient–derived PBMCs.

IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1549–1560.

  • Outside-in integrin signaling regulates splenic HSC proliferation and function.

  • Lack of POSTN–ITGAV interaction affects myofibroblasts in splenic trabecular area.

  • POSTN modulates splenic niche creation and supports splenic and incoming HSCs.

IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1561–1568.

  • Toxicity risk can be identified early by tumor burden and fever characteristics.

  • Cytokine-based algorithms have excellent predictive power.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1569–1575.

  • Anakinra improved 28-day survival rate in patients with COVID-19–associated ARDS.

  • Anakinra was well tolerated, with no increase in infection-related adverse events.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1576–1585.

  • Clostridium butyricum strain MIYAIRI588 (CBM588) protects mice from CDI.

  • CBM588 elicits neutrophil recruitment and Th1 and Th17 immunity in the gut.

  • The protective effects of CBM588 are independent of GPR43 and GPR109a.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1586–1596.

  • IL-21/IL-21R can aggravate C. muridarum lung infection.

  • IL-21/IL-21R can suppress Th1/Th17 cell responses in C. muridarum lung infection.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1597–1608.

  • COVID-19 is associated with immune-inflammation dysregulation in blood and lung.

  • CEA, IL-8, and S100A8/A9 in serum were useful for differentiating COVID-19 from influenza.

  • IL-6, CEA, IL-8, S100A8/A9, and proteinase 3 in BALF are predictive of COVID-19 severity.

INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1609–1617.

  • Extracellular rhERAPs trigger innate immunity.

  • Anti–HIV-1 activity of extracellular ERAPs relies on monocyte/macrophage activation.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1618–1630.

  • Helminth products imprint long-term hematopoietic stem cells.

  • Helminth-imprinted hematopoietic stem cells generate anti-inflammatory macrophages.

  • Helminths attenuate autoimmunity by promoting anti-inflammatory trained immunity.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1631–1641.

  • The immunoproteasome controls the activation of immune cells.

  • An inhibitor of the immunoproteasome without cellular toxicity is described.

  • PKS3053 decreases inflammation and tissue damage in a moderate cutaneous injury model.

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1642–1652.

  • Human monocyte subsets have distinct IFN-γ priming requirements for IL-12 production.

  • IFN-γ boosts monocyte IL-12 response by priming the less responsive CD16neg subset.

  • IFN-α fails to enhance monocyte IL-12 production but inhibits their priming by IFN-γ.

MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1653–1667.

  • The first atomic structure of the reptile pMHC-I reveals the unique MHC-I system.

  • The pMHC-I includes an unusual flip and an upward shift in the α1/α2–helical regions.

  • The peptide presentation motif and profile of the reptile pMHC-I were determined.

TRANSPLANTATION

J Immunol (2021) 206 (7): 1668–1676.

  • CD57+PD1 CD4 T cells can proliferate when in the presence of unsorted PBMC.

  • Rapamycin increases expression of PD1 on stimulated CD57+PD1 CD4 T cells.

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