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J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 1–2.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 3–4.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 5–14.

  • Three key H2-Oβ Ig domain residues control H2-O function.

  • MHCII presentation and antiviral Ab responses are diverse in B6J and B6N mice.

  • Two non-MHC loci mediate the difference in MHCII presentation in B6J and B6N mice.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 15–22.

  • HIV-infected H9 cells induce type I IFN production by pDC.

  • Type I IFN induces IFN-γ but not granzyme B intracellular production in CD8+ T cells.

  • Type I IFN potentiates IFN-γ secretion only upon cognate cross-presentation by pDC.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 23–33.

  • USP19 suppresses the pathogenic potential of Th17 cells.

  • USP19 removes the K63-linked ubiquitin chain from RORγt lysine 313.

  • Ubiquitination of RORγt at lysine 313 is essential for recruiting SRC3.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 34–43.

  • mIL-2/CD25 induces Treg expansion and upregulates CD25 expression in mice.

  • mIL-2/CD25 shows efficacy in inhibiting lupus nephritis in NZB × NZW and MRL/lpr mice.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 44–54.

  • Leptomeningeal B cell accumulation is a prominent feature of GME.

  • Meningeal B cell infiltrates correlate with cortical demyelination as observed in MS.

  • GME is a natural model to study compartmentalized neuroinflammation as seen in MS.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 55–64.

  • CD4+ T cells from psoriasis patients exhibit decreased PD-1 expression.

  • The transcription factor CREMα trans-represses PDCD1 and mediates DNA methylation.

  • Reduced expression of PD-1 is linked to low IL-2 and high IL-17A production.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 65–76.

  • CSE induces lysosomal damages with LMP.

  • TRIM16 is responsible for regulating lysophagy during CSE exposure.

  • Reduction of TRIM16-mediated lysophagy enhances CSE-induced cellular senescence.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 77–89.

  • Human CD40–B cells are flexible and can be polarized toward distinct functions.

  • IL-21–CD40–B cells differentiate into Ab-secreting cells.

  • Combo-CD40–B cells are highly proliferative cells with potent APC functions.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 90–100.

  • TBI triggers autoantibody production..

  • Alterations in autoantibody repertoire persist for years postinjury.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 101–109.

  • GPR65-intronic SNP rs8005161 is associated with the risk of atopic dermatitis.

  • GPR65-deficient mice developed exacerbated atopic dermatitis in an animal model.

  • pH and GPR65 signaling regulate neutrophil migration and TNF-α production by T cells.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 110–114.

  • Alveolar macrophages (AMs) inherently express PD-L1.

  • PD-L1/CD80 cis-interaction on AMs promotes AM phagocytosis.

  • Trans-interaction of PD-L1 on AMs with PD-1 on CTLs represses CTL activity.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 115–124.

  • Innate immune signaling through TLRs affects stress granule assembly.

  • TLR signaling promotes disassembly of stress granules that are already formed.

  • Stress granule inhibition is dependent on the kinase activity of the IKK complex.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 125–132.

  • Bcl6 affects expression of certain cDC markers, such as CD11c and CD8α.

  • Zbtb46+ DC1s develop in Bcl6cKO mice.

  • Bcl6cKO DC1s are functional with respect to tumor rejection.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 133–152.

  • AR STAT1 deficiency underly bacterial and viral infections.

  • Complete STAT1 deficiency is more severe disease than partial STAT1 deficiency.

  • HSCT is the only curative treatment for AR complete STAT1 deficiency.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 153–161.

  • Adenosine and cytokine synergistically augment γδ T cell activation and Th17 responses.

  • Blockade of the synergism suppress Th17 responses.

  • Serum cytokine levels predict pro- or anti-inflammatory effect of adenosine.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 162–174.

  • S and N SARS-CoV-2 proteins induce an endotoxin tolerance status in vitro.

  • S and N proteins are associated with a reduced T cell proliferation in patients with COVID-19.

  • High levels of S and N proteins increase the proportion of secondary infections.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 175–188.

  • SIV infection reduces CD4/CD8 ratios prior to and during SIV/M. tuberculosis coinfection.

  • More PD-1/TIGIT-positive CD4+ T cells are in granulomas from coinfected macaques.

  • CD4+ T cells in granulomas from SIV/M. tuberculosis macaques produce less TNF.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 189–199.

  • SVV 3Cpro directly cleaves pGSDMD to induce pyroptosis.

  • SVV 3Cpro cleaves GSDMD in pigs, but not in humans or mice.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 200–209.

  • Recognition of fungi by T. xiaojinensis βGRP1 is vital for proPO activation.

  • A surface layer prevents O. sinensis from βGRP1 detection.

  • IML8 binds to βGRP1 in the presence of C. militaris and promotes encapsulation.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 210–220.

  • Neutrophil IRE1α–CASPASE-2 axis is activated during MRSA infection.

  • IRE1α–CASPASE-2 signaling promotes neutrophil antimicrobial function.

  • Neutrophil IRE1α controls Ca2+ flux, histone citrullination, and NET formation.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 221–233.

  • Macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL-1 or CLEC10A) is activated by M. tuberculosis.

  • MGL-1 plays an important role in controlling mycobacterial proliferation in lung.

  • Loss of MGL-1 promotes proinflammatory cytokines and lipid accumulation in TB.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 234–243.

  • TARM-1 was highly expressed on monocytes of active TB patients.

  • TARM-1 promoted bacterial clearance in macrophage via ROS.

  • Blocking TARM-1 signal suppressed Th1 polarization and increased TB progression.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 244–256.

  • Zebrafish otud6b negatively regulates antiviral responses.

  • Zebrafish otud6b suppresses irf3 and irf7 activation.

  • Otud6b inhibits K63-linked polyubiquitination of irf3 and irf7.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 257–267.

  • Gut microbiota is involved in innate immune cell regulation.

  • IL-33 plays an important role in nILC2 migration.

  • nILC2 and ILC2 migrate to respond to infection and microbial dysbiosis.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 268–280.

  • SGK1 promotes alternative, while suppressing inflammatory, macrophage polarization.

  • SGK1 inversely regulates FoxO1 and STAT3 to control macrophage phenotypes.

  • SGK1 protects against P. gingivalis–induced periodontal bone loss in a mouse model.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 281–295.

  • MxG targets and degrades both IPS-1 and STING to impair antiviral immunity.

  • GTPase and GED domains of MxG contribute to the negative regulatory function.

  • A variety of viruses achieve the immune evasion through MxG.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 296–307.

  • Neddylation is activated in mice and macrophages after MRSA infection.

  • Neddylation facilitates bactericidal ability via increasing macrophage ROS production.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 308–321.

  • We describe a MHC class I structure of a shark, the most primitive species with MHC.

  • Many features of binding between the heavy chain, β2-m, and peptide are archaic.

  • β2-m residues Y10, D53, F56, and W60 are critical to form the archaic pMHC-I complex.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 322–332.

  • TRAF3 is recruited to the TCR/CD28 complex and interacts with LAT.

  • TRAF3 enhances TCR/CD28 signaling and restrains the negative LAT regulator Dok1.

  • TCR-induced kinase activation in TRAF3−/− T cells is enhanced by inhibiting PTP1B.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 333–343.

  • Retargeting IL-2 delivery to CTLs improves immunotherapy.

  • Regulatory lymphocytes hinder ex vivo expansion of CTLs.

  • Tumor-infiltrating NK cells and γδ T cells facilitate adoptive transfer immunotherapy.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 344–351.

  • We developed a rapid proximity-based assay for neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

  • The assay measures binding to the spike that blocks ACE2 recognition.

  • Unlike pseudovirus assays, the method is insensitive to HIV antiretroviral drugs.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (1): 352–353.
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