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J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2391–2392.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2393–2397.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2399–2404.

  • SARS-CoV-2 infection elicits pulmonary resident CD4+ and CD8+ T cells.

  • Pulmonary T cells are not sufficient for protection against secondary SARS-CoV-2.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2405–2410.

  • BNT162b2 induces release of exosomes carrying SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

  • Abs to SARS-CoV-2 develop after detection of circulatory exosomes.

  • Exosomes with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein are immunogenic in mice.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2411–2416.

  • Caspase-8 autoprocessing restricts gasdermin D–mediated pyroptosis and cytokine release.

  • Caspase-8–mediated caspase-3 activation leads to its anti-inflammatory effects.

  • Uncleavable caspase-8 promotes host defense during influenza A virus infection.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2417–2422.

  • Deficiency of DOCK8 in dendritic cells limits the development of EAE.

  • DOCK8 controls the presence of cDC2 in the spleen and migratory DC in the lymph nodes.

  • Migratory DC prime myelin-specific CD4+ T cells.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2423–2432.

  • STAT3 gain-of-function causes a novel disorder of dendritic cells and monocytes.

  • STAT3 gain-of-function patients lack nonclassical monocytes and certain dendritic cells.

  • STAT3 mutations cause altered dendritic cell differentiation.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2433–2444.

  • cffDNA induces innate inflammatory responses in maternal monocytes.

  • This response activates T and endothelial cells and causes myometrial contraction.

  • cffDNA may have an important role in the initiation of parturition.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2445–2455.

  • Maternal–fetal immune repertoire analyses provide insights to preterm labor.

  • Clonal convergence suggests a response to shared stimuli.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2456–2464.

  • Lactoferrin induces Foxp3+ Tregs via TβRIII→ROS→mTGF-β activation→Smad3 signaling.

  • Suppression by these Tregs exerts through CD39/CD73-mediated adenosine generation.

  • Peroral administration of lactoferrin alleviates DSS-induced colitis.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2465–2472.

  • Properdin is required for AP-mediated C5 convertase activity and C5b-9 formation.

  • Properdin induces a switch in convertase specificity toward C5.

  • Properdin has a crucial role in AP activation and total complement activation.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2473–2488.

  • CD28 is a costimulatory receptor expressed by porcine T cells.

  • Superagonistic anti-CD28 mAbs elicit a human-like response in porcine T cells.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2489–2500.

  • IL-15 trans-presentation (TP) and Ag presentation rely on APC–T cell interaction.

  • We showed IL-15R subunit assembly upon TP and joint motion with MHC to the IS.

  • IL-15R and TCR do not amplify each other’s signaling; TP is self-sufficient.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2501–2511.

  • Activated gut-homing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are associated with PTx rejection.

  • Tregs are activated in rejectors, but produce less IL-10.

  • Post-PTx conditioning affects CD4+ and CD8+ T cell number and functionality.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2512–2520.

  • Long and short transcripts were transcribed from African clawed frog IFN1, as IFNφ1 in zebrafish.

  • The long transcript contains PRD-like sites and TATA box in its proximal promoter.

  • Transcriptional conservation in IFN-β homologs may be resulted from retroposition.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2521–2533.

  • We have engineered the spike S1–interacting domain of ACE2 receptor (SPIDAR) peptide.

  • The wtSPIDAR, not mSPIDAR, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 spike S1–induced inflammation.

  • Intranasal wtSPIDAR, not mSPIDAR, protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 toxicity.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2534–2544.

  • HCMV infection promotes expression of canonical T cell molecules in NK cells.

  • CD3-positive NK cells are functionally superior in ADCC response.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2545–2550.

  • Point mutation of L-PGDS cysteine 65 decreases PGD2 production in vivo.

  • L-PGDS attenuates pulmonary edema formation via PGD2-dependent way.

  • L-PGDS reduces leukocyte infiltration and mucin production via a PGD2-independent way.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2551–2560.

  • The Trypanosoma brucei–derived metabolite I3P blocks PG production in macrophages.

  • I3P directly inhibits COX2 enzymatic activity.

  • I3P boosts COX2 expression through AhR activation and a PG feedback loop.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2561–2569.

  • 4-OI reduces COX2 expression and inhibits PG production in macrophages.

  • DMF also attenuates COX2 expression in macrophages and decreases PGs.

  • The 4-OI– and DMF-induced decrease in COX2 and PGs is NRF2 independent.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2570–2580.

  • Zebrafish prmt2 attenuates antiviral innate immunity.

  • Prmt2 catalyzes arginine methylation of traf6 at R100.

  • Prmt2 prevents K63-linked autoubiquitination of traf6.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2581–2588.

  • Pre-existing SARS-CoV-2–reactive B cells are found in tonsillar tissue.

  • SARS-CoV-2–reactive Abs can be generated de novo.

  • Pre-existing SARS-CoV-2–reactive Abs have neutralizing potential.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2589–2597.

  • Pre-existing atopy protects against paramyxovirus-induced airway disease.

  • Neutrophils and IL-4 are critical for protection against postviral airway disease.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2598–2607.

  • Anti–PD-1 promotes the function of Tregs in a claudin-low model of breast cancer.

  • PD-1 blockade increases proliferation, survival, and suppressive function of Tregs.


J Immunol (2021) 207 (10): 2608–2620.

  • Anti–IL-13 nanobodies can be generated using a standard immunization protocol.

  • Nanobodies can be easily engineered in a multimeric format.

  • Mutiparatopic nanobodies allow better inhibition than multivalent ones.

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