ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
Identification and Characterization of Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells Using Surface-Trapped TNF-α and Single-Cell Sequencing
Surface-trapped TNF-α and single-cell sequencing can identify Ag-specific TCRs.
Exogenous TCR expression in donor cells allows characterization and epitope mapping.
Btk Supports Autoreactive B Cell Development and Protects against Apoptosis but Is Expendable for Antigen Presentation
Btk supports autoreactive B cells through an early immune tolerance checkpoint.
Btk mediates antiapoptotic Bcl-xL expression in anergic anti-insulin B cells.
Mature autoreactive B cells do not require Btk for survival or Ag presentation.
The Calcium Channel Inhibitor Nimodipine Shapes the Uveitogenic T Cells and Protects Mice from Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis through the p38–MAPK Signaling Pathway
Nimodipine alleviates EAU by regulating T cells through the p38–MAPK pathway.
Nimodipine suppresses the T cells on proliferation, activation, and differentiation.
Mouse Homologue of Human HLA-DO Does Not Preempt Autoimmunity but Controls Murine Gammaherpesvirus MHV68
H2-O deficiency does not predispose to organ-specific or systemic autoimmunity.
H2-O controls the establishment of a chronic γ-herpesvirus infection.
Absence of ERAP1 in B Cells Increases Susceptibility to Central Nervous System Autoimmunity, Alters B Cell Biology, and Mechanistically Explains Genetic Associations between ERAP1 and Multiple Sclerosis
The linkage of ERAP1 with increased susceptibility to CNS autoimmunity is confirmed.
ERAP1-mediated susceptibility to CNS autoimmunity is B cell intrinsic.
The IL-10+ CNS immune compartment at the single-cell and protein levels is reconstructed.
CD29 expression enriches for cytotoxic CD4+ T cells in blood, tumor, and CMV infection.
CD29hiCD4+ T cells produce more proinflammatory cytokines and granzymes.
CD29hiCD4+ T cells have superior killing capacity against tumor cells in vitro.
RUNX1 Regulates a Transcription Program That Affects the Dynamics of Cell Cycle Entry of Naive Resting B Cells
RUNX1 reduces cell cycle and immediate early gene expression in naive B cells.
BCR stimulation triggers a switch from RUNX1 to RUNX3 binding at cell cycle genes.
Notch signaling is downregulated by RUNX1 in follicular B cells.
IRF4 is limiting for efficient production of high-affinity GCBs.
Irf4 haploinsufficiency causes suboptimal regulation of Blimp-1 expression in GCBs.
Irf4 haploinsufficient cells are competitively disadvantaged for T cell help.
CD24 and IgM Stimulation of B Cells Triggers Transfer of Functional B Cell Receptor to B Cell Recipients Via Extracellular Vesicles
CD24 and IgM cause transfer of CD24, IgM, and lipid between B cells.
Transfer of lipid and IgM is mediated by extracellular vesicles.
The transferred CD24 and IgM are functional in recipient cells.
An Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome–Causative Point Mutation in Adar1 Gene Invokes Multiorgan Inflammation and Late-Onset Encephalopathy in Mice
Multiorgan inflammation with IFN signature is observed in Adar1K948N/K948N mice.
White matter abnormalities and gliosis are detected in aged Adar1K948N/K948N mice.
A K948N point mutation reduces ADAR1 p150–mediated RNA editing, activating MDA5.
IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
LT-HSCs retain the potential to develop into TRMΦ but are tissue specific.
Large/small peritoneal MΦ exhibit a dual ontogeny, with yolk sac and LT-HSC origins.
Brain-resident microglia are not regenerated by fetal LT-HSCs.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Gα13 Mediates Transendothelial Migration of Neutrophils by Promoting Integrin-Dependent Motility without Affecting Directionality
Gα13 plays a role in integrin-dependent neutrophil transendothelial migration.
Gα13 enhances motility but did not affect directionality of neutrophil migration.
Integrin outside-in signaling mediates Gα13-dependent neutrophil migration.
Zebrafish sirt7 Negatively Regulates Antiviral Responses by Attenuating Phosphorylation of irf3 and irf7 Independent of Its Enzymatic Activity
Zebrafish sirt7 negatively regulates antiviral responses.
Zebrafish sirt7 attenuates irf3 and irf7 phosphorylation.
Sirt7 carries out its suppressive role in antiviral responses independent of its enzymatic activity.
CgPDGFRβ bound different bacteria and interacted with CgSrc.
The activated CgSrc interacted with CgStat to induce its nuclear translocation.
CgPDGFRβ-mediated signaling induced the production of immune effectors.
IL-33 activity is mediated by cell surface ST2L and antagonized by decoy soluble ST2.
Il13−/− mice had heightened IL-33 responses relative to WT.
IL-13 limits IL-33 activity by modulating the transmembrane and soluble forms of ST2.
Lean Il4raΔmyel mice have a deteriorated insulin sensitivity.
Obese Il4raΔmyel mice have a rather improved metabolic phenotype.
IL-13 stimulation increases CD11c expression in macrophages.
FAM177A1 is a negative regulator of IL-1β–induced signaling.
FAM177A1 inhibits TRAF6-mediated polyubiquitination.
FAM177A1 impairs TRAF6–Ubc13 interaction.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Mucosal Mast Cell–Specific Gene Expression Is Promoted by Interdependent Action of Notch and TGF-β Signaling
Notch signaling enhances SMAD-dependent expression of mucosal mast cell markers.
Notch signaling regulates epigenetic modification of mucosal mast cell marker genes.
Notch signaling promotes the nuclear localization of SMADs 3 and 4 in mast cells.
Invariant NKT Cells Promote the Development of Highly Cytotoxic Multipotent CXCR3+CCR4+CD8+ T Cells That Mediate Rapid Hepatocyte Allograft Rejection
In vivo development of alloprimed CD8+ CTLs requires iNKT or CD4+ T cell help.
iNKTs promote the in vivo development of alloprimed CXCR3+CCR4+CD8+ T cells.
CXCR3+CCR4+CD8+ T cells are a multipotent, highly cytotoxic CD8+ T cell subset.
Obesity enhances tumor growth while priming macrophages for inflammatory phenotypes.
The obesity-associated hormone leptin is sufficient to enhance antitumor immunity.
Leptin reprograms macrophages to complement PD-1 blockade immunotherapy.
β2-Adrenergic signaling impacts monocyte-derived cells rather than dendritic cells.
Propranolol improves cancer vaccine treatment of melanoma in mice.
On the cover: FACS-sorted small and large peritoneal macrophages (SPM and LPM) were loaded into a microfluidics chip (Fluidigm C1) to isolate individual cells for downstream single-cell high-throughput quantitative PCR. Image shows the bright field microscopy obtained to reveal the size of the isolated macrophage (SPM vs. LPM) located at the center. Eddins, D. J., A. Kosters, J.Waters, J. Sosa, M. Phillips, K. Yadava, L. A. Herzenberg, H. F. Kuipers, and E. E. B. Ghosn. 2021. Hematopoietic stem cell requirement for macrophage regeneration is tissue specific. J. Immunol. 207: 3028–3037.
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