Cutting Edge: CD36 Mediates Phagocyte Tropism and Avirulence of Toxoplasma gondii
CD36 selectively binds to avirulent T. gondii and mediates macrophage tropism.
CD36 is not required for Th1 immune resistance but is vital for tissue tolerance.
The ROP-18 virulence factor negatively regulates CD36 binding to Toxoplasma gondii.
CCR6 Expression on B Cells Is Not Required for Clinical or Pathological Presentation of MOG Protein–Induced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis despite an Altered Germinal Center Response
CCR6 is upregulated on CNS-resident B cells but is not required for CNS entry.
B cell expression of CCR6 increases nonspecific plasma cell output following MOG immunization.
B cell expression of CCR6 is not required for induction of B cell–dependent EAE.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Association of KIR Genes and MHC Class I Ligands with Atopic Dermatitis
AD has been associated with NK cell dysfunction.
Individuals with KIR2DS1, KIR2DL5, and KIR2DS5 are more likely to have AD.
These KIR genes and KIR-associated HLA epitopes increased the risk of AD.
Lymph Node Stromal Cell–Intrinsic MHC Class II Expression Promotes MHC Class I–Restricted CD8 T Cell Lineage Conversion to Regulatory CD4 T Cells
LNSC MHC-II drives conversion of CD8 T cells to CD4 CI-Treg cells.
LNSC coculture helps generate and expand CI-Treg cells in vitro.
CI-Treg cells expanded in stromal cell coculture suppress colitis in mice.
Fc Galactosylation Promotes Hexamerization of Human IgG1, Leading to Enhanced Classical Complement Activation
Fc galactosylation enhances complement activity of WT IgG1, but not hexameric IgG.
Fc galactosylation improves hexamerization potential of IgG1.
Purinergic Receptor P2Y6 Is a Negative Regulator of NK Cell Maturation and Function
P2Y6 deficiency enhances the maturation and functions of NK cells.
P2Y6 deficiency promotes the expression of T-bet in NK cells.
P2Y6 deficiency increases the antitumor activities of NK cells.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae P5 Binds Human C4b-Binding Protein, Promoting Serum Resistance
Exposure of P5 at the surface of NTHi positively correlates with C4BP binding.
C4BP bound to the bacterial surface retains its complement inhibitory capacity.
C4BP binding to P5 is important for NTHi serum resistance.
CD8+ and CD4+ T Cells Infiltrate into the Brain during Plasmodium berghei ANKA Infection and Form Long-Term Resident Memory
Malaria-specific T cells can enter the brain parenchyma near the onset of ECM.
Infiltration of T cells into the brain parenchyma contributes to cerebral pathology.
Memory T cells can form within the brain parenchyma after malaria infection.
SARS-CoV-2 Infection Drives a Glycan Switch of Peripheral T Cells at Diagnosis
T cells from COVID-19 patients display less complex N-glycans at diagnosis.
IL-2 is a putative driver of glycan switch in COVID-19 patients.
DC-SIGN expression in monocytes at diagnosis predicts poor disease course.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Severe Inflammatory Reactions in Mice Expressing a GFI1P2A Mutant Defective in Binding to the Histone Demethylase KDM1A (LSD1)
Mice expressing a mutated form of GFI1 show signs of inflammation.
Mutated GFI1 can still occupy genes, leading to a specific histone mark landscape.
Protein Phosphatase 4 Negatively Regulates the Immune Deficiency-NF-κB Pathway during the Drosophila Immune Response
The PP4 complex modulates the IMD-NF-κB–dependent immune response in Drosophila.
Loss of PP4 leads to exacerbated IMD-NF-κB signaling and a reduced lifespan.
Genetic and coimmunoprecipitation data propose an interaction between PP4 and the IKK complex.
Metabolic Adaptation of Macrophages as Mechanism of Defense against Crystalline Silica
Crystalline silica induces an immunometabolic response in RAW 264.7 macrophages.
Silica induces macrophages activation without requiring LPS priming.
Mitochondrial complex II is crucial for macrophage response and survival to silica.
A Conformational Change of Complement C5 Is Required for Thrombin-Mediated Cleavage, Revealed by a Novel Ex Vivo Human Whole Blood Model Preserving Full Thrombin Activity
Anticoagulation by GPRP allows thrombin generation in human whole blood.
Thrombin does not cleave plasma C5 in its native form.
pH-induced C5 conformational change allows thrombin-mediated cleavage of C5.
A Peptide Derived from IKK-Interacting Protein Attenuates NF-κB Activation and Inflammation
A 15 aa IKIP peptide (46–60 aa of IKIP) inhibits IKK activation.
IKIP peptide inhibits IKK activation via disruption of NEMO binding to IKKα/β.
Administration of IKIP peptide attenuates inflammatory responses in vivo.
Proautoimmune Allele of Tyrosine Phosphatase, PTPN22, Enhances Tumor Immunity
PEP-619WW mice have superior control of immunogenic tumors.
PEP-619WW mice had increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes have a more activated phenotype in PEP-619WW mice.
Acute Myeloid Leukemia Alters Group 1 Innate Lymphoid Cell Differentiation from a Common Precursor
ILC1s are enriched in the bone marrow of patients with AML and leukemic mice.
AML promotes ILC1s in part via AHR-mediated skewing of ILC precursor development.
NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
Development of an Optimized Culture System for Generating Mouse Alveolar Macrophage–like Cells
GM-CSF, TGF-β, and rosiglitazone induced the generation of AM-like cells.
AM-like cells serve as a tool for studies of AM differentiation and function.
On the cover: Malaria induces T cell infiltration of the brain. A 600-μm-thick cleared brain section from a C57BL/B6 mouse infected with blood-stage Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA). Multiphoton imaging on day 6.5 postinfection shows RBCs (white; stained with anti–TER-119 Ab), PbA-specific CD8+ PbT-I cells (red; DsRed), and PbA-specific CD4+ PbT-II cells (green; uGFP). Ghazanfari, N., J. L. Gregory, S. Devi, D. Fernandez-Ruiz, L. Beattie, S. N. Mueller, and W. R. Heath. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells infiltrate into the brain during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection and form long-term resident memory. J. Immunol. 207: 1578–1590.
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