Modern World Influences on the Microbiome and Their Consequences for Immune-Mediated Disease
PILLARS OF IMMUNOLOGY
Natural versus Laboratory World: Incorporating Wild-Derived Microbiota into Preclinical Rodent Models
A Modern-World View of Host–Microbiota–Pathogen Interactions
Microbiota-Immune Interactions Regulate Metabolic Disease
Small Molecule Metabolites at the Host–Microbiota Interface
ALLERGY AND OTHER HYPERSENSITIVITIES
Der p 38 Is a Bidirectional Regulator of Eosinophils and Neutrophils in Allergy
Der p 38 is a novel allergen binding to TLR4.
Der p 38 drives mixed granulocyte asthma in the mouse model.
Der p 38 induces antiapoptotic effects on leukocytes and cytokine secretion.
Early Stress-Response Gene REDD1 Controls Oxazolone-Induced Allergic Contact Dermatitis
REDD1 drives inflammation in oxalozone-induced allergic contact dermatitis.
REDD1 is required for T cell activation and immune cell migration to affected tissues.
REDD1 may be an attractive target for therapeutics in T cell–mediated diseases.
Anti-Monomeric C-Reactive Protein Antibody Ameliorates Arthritis and Nephritis in Mice
We developed mAbs that distinguished mCRP from pCRP.
Anti-mCRP Abs have therapeutic potential against arthritis and nephritis.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Layilin Anchors Regulatory T Cells in Skin
Layilin is expressed by highly activated Tregs in healthy and diseased human skin.
In vivo, layilin attenuates Treg suppressive capacity.
Layilin contributes to anchor Tregs in skin and enhances their accumulation.
Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase δ Inhibition Improves Neutrophil Bacterial Killing in Critically Ill Patients at High Risk of Infection
During critical illness, PI3Kδ activation impairs neutrophil phagocytosis.
PI3Kδ inhibition consistently restores neutrophil phagocytosis and bacterial killing.
PI3Kδ inhibition represents a potential strategy for prevention of infection in ICUs.
Integrin CD11b Negatively Regulates B Cell Receptor Signaling to Shape Humoral Response during Immunization and Autoimmunity
CD11b deficiency on B cells results in an enhanced Ab response.
CD11b regulates BCR signaling through the Syk–Lyn–CD22 circuit.
CD11b expression on plasma cells impacts BCR repertoire selection and diversity.
An IRF4–MYC–mTORC1 Integrated Pathway Controls Cell Growth and the Proliferative Capacity of Activated B Cells during B Cell Differentiation In Vivo
IRF4 controls cell growth, metabolism, and proliferation during B cell activation.
IRF4 is critical for B cell proliferation through proper induction of Myc.
IRF4 regulates B cell growth and mTORC1 signaling upon B cell activation.
Radiation-Induced Macrophage Senescence Impairs Resolution Programs and Drives Cardiovascular Inflammation
Senescent macrophages are poor efferocytes, and RvD1 rescues this function.
RvD1 limits necrosis and senescent cells in plaques from irradiated Ldlr−/− mice.
Hematopoietic-derived senescent cells promote plaque necrosis and decrease SPM.
IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
Inhibiting Glucose Metabolism Results in Herpes Simplex Encephalitis
Therapy with 2DG reduces the expression of ocular eye lesions by HSV.
Inhibiting glucose metabolism results in encephalitis in mice.
HSE occurred in response to break down of immune control in the TG.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Elucidating the Motif for CpG Oligonucleotide Binding to the Dendritic Cell Receptor DEC-205 Leads to Improved Adjuvants for Liver-Resident Memory
DEC-205 facilitates uptake of some classes of CpG ODN.
DEC-205 binds single-stranded, phosphorothioated ODN, preferring thymidine.
CpG ODN can be designed to promote CD8 T cell responses and resident memory.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Suppressive Monocytes Impair MAIT Cells Response via IL-10 in Patients with Severe COVID-19
The number and function of MAIT cells were impaired in patients with severe COVID-19.
MAIT cell dysfunction in severe COVID-19 correlated with MDSC-like cells.
MAIT cell dysfunction and MDSC-like cell expansion were through the IFN-I/IL-10 pathway.
A Pulmonary Lactobacillus murinus Strain Induces Th17 and RORγt+ Regulatory T Cells and Reduces Lung Inflammation in Tuberculosis
Lactobacillus murinus increases lung Th17 and RORγt+ Tregs in naive and infected mice.
L. murinus enhances the immunosuppressive phenotype of lung Th17 and RORγt+ Tregs.
L. murinus reduces lung inflammation without affecting the bacilli burden.
Severity of Sepsis Determines the Degree of Impairment Observed in Circulatory and Tissue-Resident Memory CD8 T Cell Populations
The severity of sepsis influences the cytokine storm and vascular permeability.
Skin CD103+ CD8 TRM undergo apoptosis and numerical loss following severe sepsis.
Severe sepsis leads to loss of TRM-mediated protection to local viral rechallenge.
Long-Term Evolution of the Adaptive NKG2C+ NK Cell Response to Cytomegalovirus Infection in Kidney Transplantation: An Insight on the Diversity of Host–Pathogen Interaction
The individual adaptive NKG2C+ NK cell response to CMV viremia in KTR is variable.
NKG2C+ NK, CD8+, and TcRγδ T cells remain increased long-term after viremia resolution.
Adaptive NKG2C+ NK cells may contribute with T cells to restore CMV control in KTR.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Liver-Dependent Lung Remodeling during Systemic Inflammation Shapes Responses to Secondary Infection
Hepatic STAT3 activity remodels lung transcription and proteomics during endotoxemia.
Cytokine responses to secondary lung infection are altered without intact liver input.
Airspace accumulation of coagulation mediators and APPs is liver dependent.
KAP1-Mediated Epigenetic Suppression in Anti-RNA Viral Responses by Direct Targeting RIG-I and MDA5
KAP1 inhibits RLR pathway.
KAP1 deficiency enhances anti-RNA viral innate responses.
KAP1 promotes repressive histone marks establishment at promoters of Ddx58 and Ifih1.
CXCL20a, a Teleost-Specific Chemokine That Orchestrates Direct Bactericidal, Chemotactic, and Phagocytosis-Killing–Promoting Functions, Contributes to Clearance of Bacterial Infections
CXCL20a clears infections by bactericidal and phagocytosis-promoting activities.
CXCL20a mainly targets acidic lipids for bacterial membrane perforation and death.
To our knowledge, it was first discovered that chemokine aggregates bacteria.
USP21 Deubiquitinase Regulates AIM2 Inflammasome Activation
AIM2 is directly ubiquitinated in basal state.
USP21 deubiquitinates AIM2 upon DNA stimulation.
USP21 is crucial for AIM2 inflammasome activation.
On the cover: Distribution of adaptive NKG2C+ NK cell markers assessed by t-distributed stochastic neighbor embedding analysis in CMV seropositive kidney transplant recipients long-term after renal transplantation. Cases stratified according to the incidence of posttransplant CMV viremia were compared. The figure corresponds to data from aviremic patients. Ataya, M., D. Redondo-Pachón, L. Llinàs-Mallol, J. Yélamos, E. Alari-Pahissa, M. J. Pérez-Sáez, M. Altadill, D. Raïch-Regué, C. Vilches, J. Pascual, M. Crespo, and M. López-Botet. 2021. Long-term evolution of the adaptive NKG2C+ NK cell response to cytomegalovirus infection in kidney transplantation: an insight on the diversity of host–pathogen interaction. J. Immunol. 207: 1882–1890.
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