IMMUNOLOGY NOTES AND RESOURCES
Cutting Edge: Intestinal IL-17A Receptor Signaling Specifically Regulates High-Fat Diet–Mediated, Microbiota-Driven Metabolic Disorders
Intestinal IL-17RA signaling mediates systemic glucose and lipid metabolism.
Hepatic IL-17RA signaling does not regulate systemic glucose metabolism.
IL-17RA–driven microbiota changes influence systemic glucose metabolism.
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
CD4 T Cell Responses to Theileria parva in Immune Cattle Recognize a Diverse Set of Parasite Antigens Presented on the Surface of Infected Lymphoblasts
Multiple CD4 T cell Ags are identified by screening a Theileria parva peptide library.
Ags have diverse properties and include polymorphic and conserved proteins.
Parasite infection and viral vector–delivered Ag induce similar CD4 responses.
B cell–intrinsic PD-1 expression inhibits TI-2 Bmem formation and reactivation.
PDL2 expressed by TI-2 Bmem contributes to self-suppression of reactivation.
Adjuvant enables robust IgG boosting to PPS in the context of PD-1 deficiency.
Self-Renewing Islet TCF1+ CD8 T Cells Undergo IL-27–Controlled Differentiation to Become TCF1− Terminal Effectors during the Progression of Type 1 Diabetes
Functionally distinct subsets of CD8 T cells infiltrate islets in type 1 diabetes.
Self-renewing islet CD44highTCF1+ CD8 T cells maintain the autoreactive response.
IL-27 modulates the differentiation of islet-infiltrating CD8 T cell subsets.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
IgG-VN-Glyc sequence motif frequency is elevated in the MG BCR repertoire.
The fraction of total IgG-VN-Glyc in MG serum is elevated.
The presence of IgG-VN-Glyc did not alter binding of several MG patient-derived mAbs.
Laboring decidua secretes proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.
Nonlaboring myometrium secretes multiple chemokines for leukocyte infiltration.
Broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor prevents activation of maternal leukocytes.
In the absence of RORγt, colonic Tregs lose Foxp3 expression and suppressor function.
RORγt promotes Foxp3 expression by antagonizing effector fate of colonic Tregs.
RORγt represses T-bet to control the suppressor function of Tregs.
IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
The Development and Survival of Thymic Epithelial Cells Require TSC1-Dependent Negative Regulation of mTORC1 Activity
TEC-intrinsic ablation of Tsc1 predominantly impairs mTEC with lesser impact on cTEC.
Tsc1 is essential for TEC survival by inhibiting lysosomal-mediated apoptosis.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Enhancing Antigen Presentation and Inducing Antigen-Specific Immune Tolerance with Amphiphilic Peptides
Lipophilic modification of CD4+ peptide enhances Ag presentation.
Lipo-peptide induces Ag-specific immune tolerance.
Lipo-peptide mixture delays progression to end-stage diabetes in NOD mice.
Anti-CD40 Ab fused to CD40L potentiates efficacy for B cell and DC activation.
Anti-CD40–CD40L stabilizes off-rate and drives CD40 clustering and internalization.
An anti-OX40 Ab–OX40L fusion is also a superagonist.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
CMV-responsive CD4 and CD8 T cell clonality is stable up to 1 y posttransplant.
The CD8 repertoire becomes more clonal in the first 3 mo after transplant.
Common CDR3 TCRβ motifs were detected among subjects with matched HLA type.
CMV-responsive CD8 T cells are clonally expanded and polyfunctional after transplant.
Clonally expanding cells become more polyfunctional from pre- to posttransplant.
Function and differentiation state are maintained from 3 to 12 mo posttransplant.
Murine Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression Is Essential for Antifungal Defenses in Kidneys during Disseminated Cryptococcus deneoformans Infection
iNOS is required for host’s survival in C. deneoformans disseminated infection.
iNOS promotes control of fungal growth in the kidneys but not in other organs.
iNOS−/− mice infected kidneys show increased inflammation and M2 macrophage bias.
Macrophage-Derived Osteopontin Influences the Amplification of Cryptococcus neoformans–Promoting Type 2 Immune Response
OPN induction potentiates type 2 immune response during C. neoformans infection.
Macrophage-derived OPN promotes C. neoformans growth and proliferation.
OPN is essential for C. neoformans–induced M2 polarization.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Macrophagic Extracellular Vesicle CXCL2 Recruits and Activates the Neutrophil CXCR2/PKC/NOX4 Axis in Sepsis
CXCL2 on macrophage EVs recruited neutrophils.
CXCL2 EVs activated the CXCR2/PKC/NOX4 pathway.
Targeting EVs CXCL2 is a viable strategy for sepsis treatment.
IL-6 Signaling Protects Zebrafish Larvae during Staphylococcus epidermidis Infection in a Bath Immersion Model
We have established a bath immersion model of S. epidermidis infection in zebrafish.
Macrophage activation and NF-κB-driven inflammation characterize the host response.
IL-6 signaling is protective against S. epidermidis infection.
Microglial NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation upon TLR2 and TLR5 Ligation by Distinct α-Synuclein Assemblies
α-syn monomers and oligomers efficiently activated the NLRP3 inflammasome via TLR2.
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome compromised the α-syn clearance capacity.
NLRP3 inhibition improved the overall clearance of α-syn oligomers.
HSV-1 infection causes the mitochondrial leakage of C1QBP.
Leaked C1QBP inhibits cGAS enzymatic activity.
Leaked C1QBP suppresses IFN production and facilitates viral infection.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Peptide Presentations of Marsupial MHC Class I Visualize Immune Features of Lower Mammals Paralleled with Bats
A structure and peptide binding motif of a marsupial MHC I molecule is described.
Similar amino acid insertion features of MHC I exist in lower mammals and bats.
Insertions may have implications for specific antiviral immunity in lower mammals.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Promotes Early B Lineage Development and IgA Production in the Lamina Propria in Piglets
LGG could promote early B cell development in the JLP of piglets.
LGG might contribute to promote IgA production by secreting p40 protein.
p40 could interact with the potential membrane receptors ARF4 or DIF3 of IPEC-J2.
On the cover: CD11b-positive primary mouse microglia (red) were treated with α-synuclein aggregates (green) for 15 min, and their clearance was assessed using immunocytochemistry. DAPI (blue) was used as nuclear counterstain. Scheiblich, H., L. Bousset, S. Schwartz, A. Griep, E. Latz, R. Melki, and M. T. Heneka. 2021. Microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation upon TLR2 and TLR5 ligation by distinct α-synuclein assemblies. J. Immunol. 207: 2143–2154.
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