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J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 1939.

IMMUNOLOGY NOTES AND RESOURCES

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 1941–1947.

BRIEF REVIEWS

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 1949–1957.

CUTTING EDGE

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 1959–1963.

  • Intestinal IL-17RA signaling mediates systemic glucose and lipid metabolism.

  • Hepatic IL-17RA signaling does not regulate systemic glucose metabolism.

  • IL-17RA–driven microbiota changes influence systemic glucose metabolism.

ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 1965–1977.

  • Multiple CD4 T cell Ags are identified by screening a Theileria parva peptide library.

  • Ags have diverse properties and include polymorphic and conserved proteins.

  • Parasite infection and viral vector–delivered Ag induce similar CD4 responses.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 1978–1989.

  • B cell–intrinsic PD-1 expression inhibits TI-2 Bmem formation and reactivation.

  • PDL2 expressed by TI-2 Bmem contributes to self-suppression of reactivation.

  • Adjuvant enables robust IgG boosting to PPS in the context of PD-1 deficiency.

AUTOIMMUNITY

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 1990–2004.

  • Functionally distinct subsets of CD8 T cells infiltrate islets in type 1 diabetes.

  • Self-renewing islet CD44highTCF1+ CD8 T cells maintain the autoreactive response.

  • IL-27 modulates the differentiation of islet-infiltrating CD8 T cell subsets.

CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2005–2014.

  • IgG-VN-Glyc sequence motif frequency is elevated in the MG BCR repertoire.

  • The fraction of total IgG-VN-Glyc in MG serum is elevated.

  • The presence of IgG-VN-Glyc did not alter binding of several MG patient-derived mAbs.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2015–2026.

  • Laboring decidua secretes proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.

  • Nonlaboring myometrium secretes multiple chemokines for leukocyte infiltration.

  • Broad-spectrum chemokine inhibitor prevents activation of maternal leukocytes.

IMMUNE REGULATION

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2027–2038.

  • In the absence of RORγt, colonic Tregs lose Foxp3 expression and suppressor function.

  • RORγt promotes Foxp3 expression by antagonizing effector fate of colonic Tregs.

  • RORγt represses T-bet to control the suppressor function of Tregs.

IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2039–2050.

  • TEC-intrinsic ablation of Tsc1 predominantly impairs mTEC with lesser impact on cTEC.

  • Tsc1 is essential for TEC survival by inhibiting lysosomal-mediated apoptosis.

IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2051–2059.

  • Lipophilic modification of CD4+ peptide enhances Ag presentation.

  • Lipo-peptide induces Ag-specific immune tolerance.

  • Lipo-peptide mixture delays progression to end-stage diabetes in NOD mice.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2060–2076.

  • Anti-CD40 Ab fused to CD40L potentiates efficacy for B cell and DC activation.

  • Anti-CD40–CD40L stabilizes off-rate and drives CD40 clustering and internalization.

  • An anti-OX40 Ab–OX40L fusion is also a superagonist.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2077–2085.

  • CMV-responsive CD4 and CD8 T cell clonality is stable up to 1 y posttransplant.

  • The CD8 repertoire becomes more clonal in the first 3 mo after transplant.

  • Common CDR3 TCRβ motifs were detected among subjects with matched HLA type.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2086–2095.

  • CMV-responsive CD8 T cells are clonally expanded and polyfunctional after transplant.

  • Clonally expanding cells become more polyfunctional from pre- to posttransplant.

  • Function and differentiation state are maintained from 3 to 12 mo posttransplant.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2096–2106.

  • iNOS is required for host’s survival in C. deneoformans disseminated infection.

  • iNOS promotes control of fungal growth in the kidneys but not in other organs.

  • iNOS−/− mice infected kidneys show increased inflammation and M2 macrophage bias.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2107–2117.

  • OPN induction potentiates type 2 immune response during C. neoformans infection.

  • Macrophage-derived OPN promotes C. neoformans growth and proliferation.

  • OPN is essential for C. neoformans–induced M2 polarization.

INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2118–2128.

  • CXCL2 on macrophage EVs recruited neutrophils.

  • CXCL2 EVs activated the CXCR2/PKC/NOX4 pathway.

  • Targeting EVs CXCL2 is a viable strategy for sepsis treatment.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2129–2142.

  • We have established a bath immersion model of S. epidermidis infection in zebrafish.

  • Macrophage activation and NF-κB-driven inflammation characterize the host response.

  • IL-6 signaling is protective against S. epidermidis infection.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2143–2154.

  • α-syn monomers and oligomers efficiently activated the NLRP3 inflammasome via TLR2.

  • Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome compromised the α-syn clearance capacity.

  • NLRP3 inhibition improved the overall clearance of α-syn oligomers.

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2155–2166.

  • HSV-1 infection causes the mitochondrial leakage of C1QBP.

  • Leaked C1QBP inhibits cGAS enzymatic activity.

  • Leaked C1QBP suppresses IFN production and facilitates viral infection.

MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2167–2178.

  • A structure and peptide binding motif of a marsupial MHC I molecule is described.

  • Similar amino acid insertion features of MHC I exist in lower mammals and bats.

  • Insertions may have implications for specific antiviral immunity in lower mammals.

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2021) 207 (8): 2179–2191.

  • LGG could promote early B cell development in the JLP of piglets.

  • LGG might contribute to promote IgA production by secreting p40 protein.

  • p40 could interact with the potential membrane receptors ARF4 or DIF3 of IPEC-J2.

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