ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
Protective HLA Alleles Recruit Biased and Largely Similar Antigen-Specific T Cell Repertoires across Different Outcomes in HIV Infection
Protective HLA alleles in HIV infection recruit biased T cell repertoires.
The T cell repertoire is highly similar between different rates of HIV progression.
CD8+ T Cells Expressing an HLA-DR1 Chimeric Antigen Receptor Target Autoimmune CD4+ T Cells in an Antigen-Specific Manner and Inhibit the Development of Autoimmune Arthritis
HLA-DR can be engineered to function as a CAR molecule in CD8+ T cells.
CD8+ T cells expressing HLA-DR1 CAR molecules efficiently lyse CD4+ T cells in vivo.
HLA-DR1:CII peptide CAR T cells inhibit the development of autoimmune arthritis.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Stereotypic Expansion of T Regulatory and Th17 Cells during Infancy Is Disrupted by HIV Exposure and Gut Epithelial Damage
Phenotypic differences exist between cord and birth peripheral blood CD4 cells.
Synchronous increase of Th17/Treg cells is disrupted by HIV/ART exposure.
Intrauterine HIV exposure was associated with a biomarker for epithelial gut damage.
HuR ablation in CD4+ T cells alleviates allergic airway inflammation in the OVA model.
CMLD-2 inhibits Th2 cytokine levels in CD4+ T cells from type 2 high asthmatics.
AICAR inhibits cytokine production in CD4+ cells in non–type 2 and type 2 high asthmatics.
HLA-H*02:07 Is a Membrane-Bound Ligand of Denisovan Origin That Protects against Lysis by Activated Immune Effectors
HLA-H*02:07 encodes a membrane-bound protein.
HLA-H*02:07 inhibits human effector cell activity.
HLA-H*02:07 is of archaic origin.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Combination Immune Checkpoint Blockade Enhances IL-2 and CD107a Production from HIV-Specific T Cells Ex Vivo in People Living with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy
IL-2 and CD107a expression in HIV-specific T cells is enhanced with IC blockade.
Combinations of two Abs to LAG-3, CTLA-4, or TIGIT showed the greatest activity.
CD8 count and CD4/CD8 ratio correlate with magnitude of response to IC blockade.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Intrinsic Antiviral Activity of Optineurin Prevents Hyperproliferation of a Primary Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection
OPTN mediates protection from HSV-2 by regulating the intrinsic immune response.
OPTN loss results in hyperproliferation of HSV-2 and reduced CCL5 induction.
OPTN/CCL5 nexus restricts hyperproliferative spread of primary HSV-2 infection.
ORAI1 regulates tonic IFN-I signaling via modulating baseline Ca2+ levels.
Deletion of ORAI1 enhances host susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
A Soluble PrPC Derivative and Membrane-Anchored PrPC in Extracellular Vesicles Attenuate Innate Immunity by Engaging the NMDA-R/LRP1 Receptor Complex
Shed PrPC derivatives and PrPC in extracellular vesicles regulate innate immunity.
The macrophage NMDA-R/LRP1 complex mediates the activity of PrPC released by cells.
The NMDA-R/LRP1 complex functions as an extracellular vesicle receptor in target cells.
Divergent Genetic Regulation of Nitric Oxide Production between C57BL/6J and Wild-Derived PWD/PhJ Mice Controls Postactivation Mitochondrial Metabolism, Cell Survival, and Bacterial Resistance in Dendritic Cells
PWD and 11.2 DCs have less NO production than B6 DCs.
PWD and 11.2 DCs maintain postactivation mitochondrial respiration.
NO levels between B6 and 11.2 DCs inversely correlate with L. monocytogenes control.
Nanoparticle-Induced Airway Eosinophilia Is Independent of ILC2 Signaling but Associated With Sex Differences in Macrophage Phenotype Development
Following MWCNT exposure, eosinophilic inflammation is more severe in female airways.
ILC2s are not required for MWCNT-induced eosinophilia.
Female AMs develop a more exaggerated M2a phenotype than those of males after MWCNT exposure.
Obese Srgn−/− mice have reduced adipose tissue inflammation and adipocyte size.
Adipose tissue Srgn mRNA is predominantly expressed by resident immune cells.
Patients with obesity have increased SRGN mRNA expression in adipose tissue.
Recombinant and plasma-derived human C5a signal comparatively at C5aR1 and C5aR2.
Recombinant but not plasma-derived human C5a induces IL-6 release in macrophages.
The recombinant C5a-induced cytokine response is independent of C5aR1 or endotoxin.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Ig enhancers (DIVACs) increase RNA Pol II stalling in the SHM target gene.
DIVACs do not operate by increasing antisense transcription.
Prosurvival IL-7–Stimulated Weak Strength of mTORC1-S6K Controls T Cell Memory via Transcriptional FOXO1–TCF1–Id3 and Metabolic AMPKα1–ULK1–ATG7 Pathways
IL-2 and IL-7 induce S6Kstrong and S6Kweak signals, leading to forming TE and TM cells.
IL-7–stimulated S6Kweak signaling controls T cell memory via FOXO1 and AMPK pathways.
Active TGF-β is present in many cancer indications.
dnTGFβRII can be coexpressed in T cells with engineered TCRs.
dnTGFβRII–expressing T cells are resistant to inhibition by TGF-β.
NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
The IgNAR region >3.13 Mb was enriched 245.531-fold by CATCH.
Twenty holes of 3508 bp of the IgNAR region were filled using PacBio HiFi reads.
Five potential germline V alleles of IgNAR1 were found.
On the cover: Inhibition of autophagy flux in an optineurin knockout cell after HSV-2 infection. Cells expressing LC3-GFP-mCherry were observed using confocal microscopy. Lack of optineurin inhibits degradation of HSV-2 in lysosomes (red) and causes an increase in the number of enlarged autophagasomes (yellow). Nucleus in blue stained with Hoechst stain. Patil, C. D., R. Suryawanshi, J. Ames, R. Koganti, A. Agelidis, D. Kapoor, T. Yadavalli, L. Koujah, H. C. Tseng, and D. Shukla. 2022. Intrinsic antiviral activity of optineurin prevents hyperproliferation of a primary herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. J. Immunol. 208: 63–73.
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