Dicer and PKR as Novel Regulators of Embryonic Stem Cell Fate and Antiviral Innate Immunity
Cutting Edge: SARS-CoV-2 Infection Induces Robust Germinal Center Activity in the Human Tonsil
Spike-specific B cells are maintained following recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Tonsil germinal center spike-specific B cells are present after SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Tonsil B and Tfh cell responses could play a role in durable SARS-CoV-2 immunity.
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
MLN4924 Inhibits Defective Ribosomal Product Antigen Presentation Independently of Direct NEDDylation of Protein Antigens
NEDD8 fusion to a model protein results in proteasome and autophagosome degradation.
NEDD8 fusion is less efficient than ubiquitin fusion for peptide presentation.
DRiP Ag presentation is diminished by MLN4924 treatment.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Peripheral sTREM2-Related Inflammatory Activity Alterations in Early-Stage Alzheimer’s Disease
Early-stage alterations were evident in peripheral sTREM2-related inflammatory activity.
These alterations implicate early inflammatory cell development and recruitment signaling in AD.
Patterns of inflammatory activity are altered across all AD stages.
Profound Defect of Amphiregulin Secretion by Regulatory T Cells in the Gut of HIV-Treated Patients
IL-33 expression is increased in the gut of HIV-infected patients.
IL-33 is associated with fibrosis and low CD4+ T cell reconstitution.
Despite the presence of IL-33, tTreg cells do not produce amphiregulin.
Berberine Modulates Macrophage Activation by Inducing Glycolysis
Berberine induces aerobic glycolysis and expression of GLUT1/HK2 in BMDMs.
Berberine priming increases cytokine secretion by BMDMs triggered with LPS.
Berberine alleviates Salmonella typhimurium enteritis and endotoxic shock.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Modulates T Follicular Helper Cell Responses to Influenza Virus Infection in Mice
AHR modulates Tfh cell responses during infection in a CD4+ T cell–intrinsic manner.
AHR alters the Tfr/Tfh cell ratio and levels of BCL6 and FOXP3 in CD4+ T cells.
AHR requires a functional DBD to modulate Tfh and Tfr cells during IAV infection.
A Dual Role for Cysteinyl Leukotriene Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Corneal Infection
CysLT receptors are expressed at high basal levels within the cornea.
CysLT1 and CysLT2 expressed in the cornea are not solely proinflammatory in nature.
CysLT receptors may play homeostatic and proresolving roles in the cornea.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
A Novel Ig Domain–Containing C-Type Lectin Triggers the Intestine–Hemocyte Axis to Regulate Antibacterial Immunity in Crab
Polymeric EsIgLectin generates higher antibacterial activities than monomer.
EsIg bound to EspIgR-Ig1 to promote hemocyte phagocytosis.
Hemocyte-derived EsIgLectin entered the intestine at the later phase of inflammation.
Carbon Dioxide Sensing by Immune Cells Occurs through Carbonic Anhydrase 2–Dependent Changes in Intracellular pH
High CO2 (hypercapnia) reduces macrophage activation and migration.
Our data implicate a novel CA2/[pH]i axis in CO2 sensing in cells.
Patients with lung disease are at risk of developing surgical complications.
Cell-Penetrating Peptide TAT-HuR-HNS3 Suppresses Proinflammatory Gene Expression via Competitively Blocking Interaction of HuR with Its Partners
HuR-HNS3 interrupts PARylation of HuR and HuR dimerization.
TAT-HuR-HNS3 blocks HuR cytoplasmic distribution and association with target mRNAs.
TAT-HuR-HNS3 lowers proinflammatory mediators’ mRNA production.
Extracellular Nucleotides and Histamine Suppress TLR3- and RIG-I–Mediated Release of Antiviral IFNs from Human Airway Epithelial Cells
ATP and histamine suppress virus-mediated IFN release from airway epithelial cells.
Inhibition of IFN release by ATP/histamine occurs through Gq–PKC signaling.
P2Y2 and H1 receptor blockade reverses ATP/histamine inhibition of IFN release.
Lupus Susceptibility Loci Predispose Mice to Clonal Lymphocytic Responses and Myeloid Expansion
Lupus susceptibility loci lead to emergence of novel myeloid subpopulations.
Myeloid cells from lupus mice have decreased metabolism and Ag presentation.
Algorithmic specificity prediction distinguishes TCRs from autoimmune mice.
CXCL13 as a Novel Immune Checkpoint for Regulatory B Cells and Its Role in Tumor Metastasis
CXCL13 contributes to tumor metastasis by recruiting regulatory B cells.
Recruited regulatory B cells affect both innate and adaptive immunity.
Lack of CXCL13 increases the efficacy of chemotherapy and PD-1 blockade.
NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
A Novel Method for Total IgE Purification from Human Serum
We describe a highly effective and accessible approach for the purification of human serum IgE.
This method is useful for experimental models in the field of allergy and clinical immunology.
It is possible that this method can be scaled up to larger volumes if needed.
On the cover: Gut mucosal tissue sections from HIV-infected patients on combined antiretroviral therapy, displaying fibrosis quantified by ImageJ software from Sirius red staining of tissue sections. Tariq, M., S. Gallien, M. Surenaud, A. Wiedemann, F. Jean-Louis, C. Lacabaratz, J. L. Lopez Zaragoza, J.-D. Zeitoun, S. Ysmail-Dalhouk, J.-D. Leliévre, Y. Lévy, and S. Hüe. 2022. Profound defect of amphiregulin secretion by regulatory T cells in the gut of HIV-treated patients. J. Immunol. 208: 2300–2308.
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