IMMUNOLOGY NOTES AND RESOURCES
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
IgD has the unique ability to neglect weakly interacting autoantigens.
IgD has a higher activation threshold than IgM.
B cells can adjust their sensitivity to Ag by shifting IgM- to IgD–BCR ratio.
Aire Controls Heterogeneity of Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells for the Expression of Self-Antigens
Many Aire-dependent genes in mTECs, including TRAs, may not be Aire’s primary targets.
Aire-dependent mTEC heterogeneity accounts for the altered gene expression in mTECs.
Ccl25 is a canonical Aire target involved in the autoimmunity of Aire deficiency.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Serum 8-Hydroxydeoxyguanosine Is a Potential Indicator for the Severity and Prognosis in Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Prospective Cohort Study
Serum 8-OHdG is increased in patients with CAP compared with those in control subjects.
Serum 8-OHdG is positively associated with the severity of CAP in patients.
Serum 8-OHdG is positively associated with the poor prognosis in patients with CAP.
ABCB10 null CD4, but not CD8, T cells produce less IL-2 and TNF-α on activation.
CD4+-specific loss of Abcb10 results in poor memory formation and recall responses.
ABCB10 null Jurkat T cells do not switch to glycolysis on activation.
IFN-γ induces IL-15 upregulation in epithelial cells more potently than type I IFNs.
IFN-γ induces IL-15 expression in epithelial cells via the STAT1/IRF1 pathway.
IFN-γ–induced IL-15 on epithelial cells activates NK cells via trans-presentation.
Inhibition of EZH2 increases Ca2+ flux through induced ion channel PKD2 expression.
Upregulation of Ca2+ flux induces abnormal toxic particle release from NK cells.
IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
Myeloid-restricted hematopoietic stem cells can replenish pDC and cDC in vivo.
DC diversification is associated with differences in genomic methylation levels.
Reducing Dnmt1 activity alleviates systemic lupus erythematosus autoimmunity.
Nemo-Dependent, ATM-Mediated Signals from RAG DNA Breaks at Igk Feedback Inhibit Vκ Recombination to Enforce Igκ Allelic Exclusion
Nemo deficiency impairs RAG DSB signaling without affecting RAG DSB repair.
Nemo deficiency allows biallelic RAG cleavage and surface expression of Igk loci.
Nemo-dependent, ATM-mediated RAG DSB signaling enforces Igκ allelic exclusion.
Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Discrete Steps in Regulatory T Cell Development in the Human Thymus
FOXO1 induction marks a key event in thymic Treg cell development.
Treg cell developmental stages can be distinguished using surface molecules.
The human thymus contains a substantial population of recirculating Treg cells.
Reinvestigation of Classic T Cell Subsets and Identification of Novel Cell Subpopulations by Single-Cell RNA Sequencing
Naive T cell showed the highest similarity to its scCPop counterpart in T cell subsets.
Cell population identified by scRNA-seq is more homogeneous than classic T subset.
ISAGhi T were identified by scRNA-seq, which may contribute to quick immune response.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Mucosal Vaccination with Cyclic Dinucleotide Adjuvants Induces Effective T Cell Homing and IL-17–Dependent Protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
Mucosal CDN vaccine elicits IL-17– and IFN-γ–dependent protection against TB.
T cells in CDN-immunized mice traffic to granulomatous lesions.
Mucosal MPLA-adjuvanted vaccine does not protect despite eliciting IL-17.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Exploration of Human Lung-Resident Immunity and Response to Respiratory Viral Immunization in a Humanized Mouse Model
Viral immunization induces human lung-resident memory T cell responses in HISL mice.
Antiviral human immunity protects HISL mice from secondary infection.
T cell and Ab responses to SARS-CoV-2 persist up to 9 mo after symptoms.
SARS-CoV-2–specific CD4+ T effector and cTfh responses correlate with IgG responses.
T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 show a high proportion of IL-2–producing CD4 T cells.
LPS augmented the impact of SAMHD1 deficiency on intracellular dNTP levels.
SAMHD1 protected mice from acute Friend retrovirus replication in vivo.
SAMHD1 promoted immune responses in a sex-dependent manner in vivo.
Altered Mitochondrial Homeostasis during Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Impairs Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Rendering Neutrophils Ineffective at Combating Staphylococcus aureus
Altered mitochondrial homeostasis in SLE neutrophils impairs superoxide production.
NET formation by SLE neutrophils is decreased in response to S. aureus.
SLE neutrophils are less bactericidal towards S. aureus.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
IL-17/IL-17 Receptor Pathway–Mediated Inflammatory Response in Apostichopus japonicus Supports the Conserved Functions of Cytokines in Invertebrates
Vibrio splendidus induces inflammation in the body wall of Apostichopus japonicus.
AjIL-17/AjIL-17R regulate inflammatory responses by promoting AjTRAF6 ubiquitination.
We functionally identified the IL-17R outside of chordates.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Structure and Peptidomes of Swine MHC Class I with Long Peptides Reveal the Cross-Species Characteristics of the Novel N-Terminal Extension Presentation Mode
There are cross-species features of the N-terminal extension of peptides bound by MHC class I.
The polymorphic A pocket residues have pros and cons to the peptide extension.
The N-terminal extension of the peptide does not exceed three residues.
Functional Competence of NK Cells via the KIR/MHC Class I Interaction Correlates with DNAM-1 Expression
NK cell education correlates with DNAM-1 expression in patients after HSCT.
Recipient HLA showed a stronger effect on reconstituted NK cells than donor HLA.
PRMT5 Deficiency Enforces the Transcriptional and Epigenetic Programs of Klrg1+CD8+ Terminal Effector T Cells and Promotes Cancer Development
T cell–specific deletion of PRMT5 induced SLEC+CD8+ T cell differentiation.
T cell PRMT5 deficiency decreased H4R3me2s and H3R8me2s deposition on Prdm1 loci.
T cell–specific deletion of PRMT5 promoted tumor progression.
NOVEL IMMUNOLOGICAL METHODS
A System for In Vitro Generation of Mature Murine Plasma Cells Uncovers Differential Blimp-1/Prdm1 Promoter Usage
A multistep in vitro culture system generates fully mature murine plasma cells.
Initial stimuli establish unique gene expression profiles.
The system enables detection of regulatory diversity in the expression of Blimp-1/Prdm1.
On the cover: This special issue of The Journal of Immunology, entitled “Celebrating Diversity in Immunology,” highlights an outstanding cadre of immunologists with diverse backgrounds who have been recognized as current or future thought leaders given their considerable scientific accomplishments. Unlike our previous annual review collections, which focused on a single area within immunology, this year we wanted to celebrate diversity in immunology with a collection of reviews that represent a broad spectrum of science. The cover was designed to represent our commitment to scientific and cultural diversity.
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