Cutting Edge: Serum but Not Mucosal Antibody Responses Are Associated with Pre-Existing SARS-CoV-2 Spike Cross-Reactive CD4+ T Cells following BNT162b2 Vaccination in the Elderly
Vaccination efficiency is associated with pre-existing CD4+ T cells in the elderly.
Salivary IgA response is less durable in COVID-19 vaccinees than in convalescents.
ALLERGY AND OTHER HYPERSENSITIVITIES
E-Protein Inhibition in ILC2 Development Shapes the Function of Mature ILC2s during Allergic Airway Inflammation
E-proteins act during ILC2 development to shape lung ILC2 functional capacity.
Forced E-protein inhibition as ILC2s develop associates with impaired ILC2 function.
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
LPS inhalation upregulates MHC I in the lung epithelium via IFN type I, II, and III.
MHC I upregulation is hampered by peptide loading of MHC I molecules.
Inflammation represses genes implicated in specialized lung epithelium functions.
Dynamic Number and Function of IL-10–Producing Regulatory B Cells in the Immune Microenvironment at Distinct Stages of Type 1 Diabetes
B10 cells increase during insulitis and decrease with the occurrence of diabetes.
Dysfunction of B10 cells is due to the defect in IL-10 secretion.
The balance of pathogenic Th1/Th17 cells and B10 cells was altered.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Single-Cell Transcriptional Profiling Reveals Signatures of Helper, Effector, and Regulatory MAIT Cells during Homeostasis and Activation
MAIT cells adopt diverse phenotypes associated with CD4+ or CD8+ coexpression.
Ag and nonspecific T cell stimulation induce distinct MAIT cell phenotypes.
FOXP3-expressing MAIT cells phenotypically resemble conventional regulatory T cells.
TNFR2-stimulated Tfr cells show enhanced proliferation and suppressive function.
TNFR2 signaling enhanced suppressive function of Tfr cells against Tfh and B cells.
Receptor-specific treatment may be beneficial for autoimmune diseases.
CD8+ DCs and pDCs contribute to Tfh priming and Ab response to immunization.
Immunization induced CD8+ DCs to produce IL-6 and enhanced CD80 expression.
G-CSF signaling impacts pDC differentiation and response to immunization.
N Protein of Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus Suppresses STAT1-Mediated MHC Class II Transcription to Impair Antigen Presentation in Sea Perch, Lateolabrax japonicus
VHSV infection affects MHC-II expression induced by IFN-γ in sea perch.
N protein of VHSV degrades STAT1 through K48-linked ubiquitination.
Nix and Bnip3 regulate mitochondrial homeostasis by autophagy in memory B cells.
Mitochondrial autophagy is required for metabolic quiescence in memory B cells.
Uncontrolled metabolic function increases cell death in memory B cells.
Exon–Intron Circular RNA circRNF217 Promotes Innate Immunity and Antibacterial Activity in Teleost Fish by Reducing miR-130-3p Function
miR-130-3p promotes V. anguillarum invasion into cells by targeting NOD1 in teleost.
circRNF217 can adsorb miR-130-3p through a ceRNA mechanism to promote NOD1 expression.
circRNF217 enhances innate immunity by promoting NOD1 expression.
The P2X4 receptor is involved in human Th17 cell activation.
Blockade of P2X4 receptor reduces arthritis severity in mice.
Foxp3 is present in the chicken genome.
Domain organization and synteny are largely conserved.
Phenotypically, chicken regulatory T cells resemble their mammalian counterparts.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Boosting of the SARS-CoV-2–Specific Immune Response after Vaccination with Single-Dose Sputnik Light Vaccine
Vaccination with Sputnik Light boosts pre-existing immune response against SARS-CoV-2.
Vaccination may be recommended when the RBD-specific IgG titers drop to 142.7 BAU/ml.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipains Induce Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression and Prostaglandin E2 Production via ERK1/2-Activated AP-1 (c-Jun/c-Fos) and IKK/NF-κB p65 Cascades
Gingipains induce COX-2 expression and PGE2 production in P. gingivalis infection.
COX-2 expression by gingipains required MEK/ERK/AP-1 and IKK/NF-κB p65.
Gingipains are central virulence factors involved in periodontitis.
ATF7ip Targets Transposable Elements for H3K9me3 Deposition to Modify CD8+ T Cell Effector and Memory Responses
ATF7ip is a critical regulator of CD8+ T cell effector and memory responses.
Deletion of ATF7ip in CD8+ T cells results in enhanced Il2 and Il7r expression.
ATF7ip targets transposable elements to modulate Il7r and Il2 expression.
Mucosa-Associated Invariant T Cell Hypersensitivity to Staphylococcus aureus Leukocidin ED and Its Modulation by Activation
MAIT cells are hypersensitive to the S. aureus LukED toxin.
The effect is dependent on extraordinarily high CCR5 expression.
Activation via inflammatory cytokines or TCR partly protects MAIT cells.
Circulating T Cells Are Not Sufficient for Protective Immunity against Virulent Francisella tularensis
Circulating immune Teffs initially restrict Francisella replication.
Circulating Teffs are not sufficient for survival after Francisella challenge.
Efficacious Francisella vaccines must elicit resident and circulating T cells.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
A Novel Non–Mammalian-Specific HERC7 Negatively Regulates IFN Response through Degrading RLR Signaling Factors
HERC7 is a novel IFN-inducible member of the small HERC family.
HERC7 downregulates the IFN response to promote viral replication.
HERC7 targets MAVS, MITA, and IRF7 degradation by distinct mechanisms.
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Inhibit Macrophage Efferocytosis of Apoptotic β Cells through Binding to the Receptor for AGEs
AGEs inhibit macrophage efferocytosis of apoptotic β cells.
AGEs inhibit efferocytosis through activating RAGE/RhoA/ROCK signaling.
AGEs inhibit inflammation-resolving function of efferocytosis.
Shrimp Plasma MANF Works as an Invertebrate Anti-Inflammatory Factor via a Conserved Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase
Shrimp MANF is an LPS-induced plasma protein.
Shrimp plasma MANF controls hemocyte activation via ERK and Dorsal inhibition.
A conserved receptor tyrosine phosphatase is required for MANF inhibition effects.
Murine γδ T cells can express IFN-γ or IL-17.
Pro-Th17 activity of γδ T cells is associated with gdT17, but not gdT1.
Functional activity of γδ T cells is modulated by the activation pathway.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Group B Streptococcus Surface Protein β: Structural Characterization of a Complement Factor H–Binding Motif and Its Contribution to Immune Evasion
β binds to FH via a helical bundle motif located within its B75KN region.
β binds to FH in a manner that retains the complement regulatory activities of FH.
β enhances resistance to phagocytosis and killing, but not in an FH-dependent manner.
Upregulation of Checkpoint Ligand Programmed Death-Ligand 1 in Patients with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria Explained by Proximal Complement Activation
Blood of PNH patients exhibits elevated levels of the checkpoint ligand PD-L1.
Complement C3 or C4 opsonization induces PD-L1 upregulation in peripheral blood.
B Cells Are Not Involved in the Regulation of Adenoviral TGF-β1– or Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice
The role of B cells in lung fibrogenesis is still understudied.
WT and µMT knockout mice show similar fibrotic remodeling after AdTGF-β1 or BLM treatment.
B cells play only a subordinate role in lung fibrogenesis in mice.
PlexinD1 Deficiency in Lung Interstitial Macrophages Exacerbates House Dust Mite–Induced Allergic Asthma
Deficiency of plexinD1 in IMs exacerbates inflammation and AHR in allergic asthma.
Plxnd1-deficient IM mice display enhanced IgE, goblet cell hyperplasia, and Th2/Th17.
The PlexinD1/Sema3E axis is critical for macrophage-derived IL-10 expression.
Knockout of Factor-Inhibiting HIF (Hif1an) in Colon Epithelium Attenuates Chronic Colitis but Does Not Reduce Colorectal Cancer in Mice
Study of epithelial factor-inhibiting HIF (Hif1an) knockout in mouse colorectal cancer.
Loss of FIH increased intestinal barrier but decreased intestinal inflammation.
The reduced inflammatory response did not lead to changes in the tumor outcome.
Liver-localized CD8 T cells perform correlated random walks.
Lévy flights of CD8 T cells are due to floating with the blood flow.
Lévy and Brownian walkers in the liver have similar search efficiency.
On the cover: In vitro activated CD8 T cells move in liver sinusoids. Intravital imaging was performed of the livers of mice that had previously received in vitro activated CD8 T cells (green) and i.v. injection of rhodamine dextran (red). Rajakaruna, H., J. H. O'Connor, I. A. Cockburn, and V. V. Ganusov. 2022. Liver environment-imposed constraints diversify movement strategies of liver-localized CD8 T cells. J. Immunol. 208: 1292–1304.
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