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J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1515–1516.

PILLARS OF IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1517–1518.

This Pillars of Immunology article is a commentary on “Fc receptors initiate the Arthus reaction: redefining the inflammatory cascade,” a pivotal article written by D. L. Sylvestre and J. V. Ravetch, and published in Science, in 1994. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.8066448.

CUTTING EDGE

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1519–1524.

  • Anti-CD20 DMTs cause an absence of Spike-specific Abs and limit TFH frequency in MS patients.

  • Dimethyl fumarate causes a reduction in anti-Spike–specific CD8 T cells in MS patients.

  • Fingolimod compromises Spike-specific Ab and T cell responses in MS patients.

ALLERGY AND OTHER HYPERSENSITIVITIES

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1525–1533.

  • Arginine methylation catalyzed by PRMT5 is increased during lung inflammation.

  • PRMT5 in T cells is required for severe eosinophilic/neutrophilic lung inflammation.

  • PRMT5 promotes high pulmonary sterol metabolic activity, RORγt, and Th17 responses.

AUTOIMMUNITY

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1534–1544.

  • T cell–specific TRAIL-R KO mice resist TRAIL-mediated anti-inflammation in EAE.

  • TRAIL directly inhibits T cell activation without inducing cell apoptosis in EAE.

  • TRAIL-R signaling significantly downregulates the genes of TCR signaling pathways.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1545–1553.

  • Chlorzoxazone reduced Th17 differentiation in the spleen and CNS in EAE mice.

  • Chlorzoxazone inhibited IL-6 production by DCs in a dose-dependent manner.

  • Chlorzoxazone affected the function of DCs through the AMPK pathway.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1554–1565.

  • Pharmacological modulation of HSC generated HSC.Regs.

  • HSC.Regs trafficked to the sites of inflammation.

  • HSC.Regs mitigated autoimmune responses (diseases).

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1566–1584.

  • Anti-human CD79A prevents autoimmunity in mice without significant B cell depletion.

  • Anti-human CD79A induces a transient form of B cell anergy.

  • Anti-human CD79A may silence Ab production by plasmablasts and plasma cells.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1585–1594.

  • The murine kidney harbors two distinct populations of NCR+T-bet+ ILCs.

  • Transcriptomic profiling identifies these two populations as cNK cells and ILC1s.

  • Depletion of NCR+T-bet+ ILCs does not influence pathogenesis of experimental cGN.

CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1595–1615.

  • IL-22 plays a dual role in the amniotic cavity.

  • IL-22 causes fetal tissue injury leading to neonatal death.

  • IL-22 participates in host defense against infection leading to preterm birth.

IMMUNE REGULATION

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1616–1631.

  • Fish IL-2 participates in the clearance of bacteria by regulating the T cell response.

  • Fish IL-2 possesses an uncanonical receptor complex (IL-15Rα/IL-2Rβ/γc).

  • Fish IL-2 signaling couples MAPK and mTORC1 axes to regulate T cell immunity.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1632–1641.

  • Neutrophils and FPR knock-in/knockout cells provide insights into receptor recognition.

  • The S. aureus peptide PSMα2 is an FPR2 agonist that triggers biased signaling.

  • Peptide parts that confer FPR1/FPR2 selectivity and alter signaling are identified.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1642–1651.

  • PMAs were increased in blood of patients with active TB.

  • TLT-1 was required for generation of PMAs.

  • PMAs were involved in B10 polarization.

IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1652–1663.

  • aBM HSCs expand in aBM-transplanted mice.

  • aBM CD34+ cells show less durable APC reconstitution than FL CD34+ cells.

  • Cytokine/niche support and intrabone injection improve APC reconstitution from aBM.

INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1664–1674.

  • Syk is critical for neutrophil response to Candida albicans.

  • LPS is capable of rescuing fungicidal activity in Syk-deficient neutrophils.

  • Restoration of fungicidal activity is in part due to activation of c-Fos.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1675–1685.

  • Staphylococcus aureus can internalize and survive within the human mast cells.

  • Mast cells produce type I IFN in response to intracellular S. aureus.

  • Type I IFN enhances cell-autonomous immunity in human mast cells.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1686–1699.

  • Effector CD8+ T cells with increased memory potential express higher P2RX7 levels.

  • P2RX7hi early effectors form memory CD8+ T cells with increased longevity.

  • P2RX7 favors the memory CD8+ T cell fate via TGF-β–mediated Zeb2 downregulation.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1700–1710.

  • HIV integration frequently targets the intron preceding the first exon of BACH2.

  • Gene editing was used to model the impact of integration in primary CD4+ T cells.

  • BACH2 IS targeting led to selective expansion of a Treg–like population.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1711–1718.

  • Participant age was positively associated with SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels in outpatients.

  • Participant BMI was positively correlated with SARS-CoV-2 Ab levels in outpatients.

  • Ab levels were associated with microneutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1719–1728.

  • Infection with ZIKVBR induces a dampened Th1 response.

  • Infection with ZIKVBR drives an enhanced Tfh/GC B cell response.

  • Abs induced by ZIKVBR are of higher avidity and neutralize infection better

INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1729–1741.

  • Platelet GPIbα interacts with Mac-1 on DCs.

  • For binding, P-selectin–PSGL1 interaction induces Mac-1 upregulation on DCs.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1742–1754.

  • Naive C57BL/6 mice have a pre-existing memory-like NK cell population.

  • The pre-existing memory-like population comprises predominantly licensed NK cells.

  • Ly49I has limited direct effect on NK cell responses to MCMV beyond proliferation.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1755–1771.

  • Aged female, not male, mice maintain protective antipneumococcal natural Abs.

  • CD5+ B-1 cells from aged female and male mice differ in repertoire.

  • Sex influences the number, phenotype, and gene expression of CD5+ B-1 cells.

MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1772–1781.

  • GalNAc-conjugated C3 siRNA inhibits C3 gene expression in the liver of Cfh+/− mice.

  • C3 siRNA reduces plasma C3 fragmentation and factor B activation in Cfh+/− mice.

  • C3 siRNA limits glomerular C3 deposits in Cfh+/− mice.

MUCOSAL IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1782–1789.

  • The gut commensal Tritrichomonas musculis elevates luminal extracellular ATP levels.

  • NLRP1B and NLRP3 direct the Tritrichomonas musculis–driven Th cell response.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1790–1801.

  • CyTOF was performed on matched blood, gut, and genital T cells from ART-suppressed HIV+ women.

  • Shared and distinct phenotypic features of T cells are observed from gut and genital tracts.

  • Gut has more Trm, but genital Trm cells preferentially express PD1.

TUMOR IMMUNOLOGY

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1802–1812.

  • Combinatorial expression of receptors dictates NK cell reactivity against tumors.

  • Hierarchy of response against different tumors is conserved among NK cell subsets.

  • NK cell subsets with relative effector specialization are defined.

J Immunol (2022) 208 (7): 1813–1827.

  • MHC class I binding, stability, and expression predict neoantigen immunogenicity.

  • These characteristics were integrated into the NeoScore to rank immunogenicity.

  • A high NeoScore is associated with improved response to melanoma immunotherapy.

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