Nfkbid Overexpression in Nonobese Diabetic Mice Elicits Complete Type 1 Diabetes Resistance in Part Associated with Enhanced Thymic Deletion of Pathogenic CD8 T Cells and Increased Numbers and Activity of Regulatory T Cells
Elevating expression of the NF-κB regulatory Nfkbid gene inhibits T1D in NOD mice.
Elevated Nfkbid levels enhance thymic deletion of diabetogenic CD8 T cells.
Elevating Nfkbid increases Treg numbers and activity partly inhibiting T1D.
Analysis of Gene Expression and TCR/B Cell Receptor Profiling of Immune Cells in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome by Single-Cell Sequencing
The proportions of immune cells and autoimmune and virus-related genes change in pSS.
Cell communication of TGF-β and CD30 among immune cells was abnormal in pSS patients.
Single-cell TCR and BCR repertoires do not change much in pSS patients.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
Acetylcholine and fatty acids/oxylipins are associated with severe COVID-19.
Glucocorticoids reduce acetylcholine levels and favor COVID-19 survival.
Role of C3a as a Novel Regulator of 25(OH)D3 to 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Metabolism in Upper Airway Epithelial Cells
Complement component C3 suppresses 1α-hydroxylase in sinonasal epithelial cells.
The active metabolite 1,25(OH)2D3 suppresses sinonasal epithelial cell release of C3.
A rapid and specific tracing method quantifies circulating CD207+ and CD1a+ cells in LCH.
Cellular status will help prognostic accuracy and follow-up with a noninvasive procedure.
Comparison of Neutralizing Antibody Response Kinetics in Patients with Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease Caused by Coxsackievirus A16 or Enterovirus A71: A Longitudinal Cohort Study of Chinese Children, 2017–2019
Both CVA16 and EV-A71 infection induced a persistent humoral immune response.
Compared with EV-A71 infection, the CVA16-induced NAb response was significantly lower.
Our findings showed that sampling time and clinical severity had effects on the NAb response.
CD11bhigh B cells are a distinct subset of B cells that increase with aging.
CD11bhigh B cells are increased in both young and aged brains after stroke.
CD11bhigh B cells can regulate microglia phenotypes and increase phagocytosis.
ICOS-Deficient Regulatory T Cells Can Prevent Spontaneous Autoimmunity but Are Impaired in Controlling Acute Inflammation
ICOS-deficient Treg cells can suppress spontaneous autoimmunity.
ICOS-deficient Treg cells show impaired differentiation of Th1-Treg cells.
Plasmalogen-Mediated Activation of GPCR21 Regulates Cytolytic Activity of NK Cells against the Target Cells
Plasmalogen activates GPCR21 to regulate the cytolytic activity of human NK cells.
GPCR21 is glycosylated in the NK cells after recognition with the target cells.
Oral ingestion of plasmalogen inhibits tumor growth and viral proliferation in mice.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
The Capsid Protein of Nervous Necrosis Virus Antagonizes Host Type I IFN Production by a Dual Strategy to Negatively Regulate Retinoic Acid–Inducible Gene-I–like Receptor Pathways
CP potentiates RGNNV proliferation by suppressing the RLR-IFN signaling pathway.
CP promotes LjRNF114-mediated K48 ubiquitination and degradation of LjTRAF3.
CP promotes the K48-linked ubiquitination and degradation of LjIRF3.
Epigenetic Reprogramming Leads to Downregulation of CD4 and Functional Changes in African Green Monkey Memory CD4+ T Cells
AGMs downregulate CD4 from their Th cells to avoid pathogenicity from SIV.
ATACseq showed the CD4 locus loses accessibility in these cells.
Additional changes reveal that epigenetics plays an important role.
MAVS Expression in Alveolar Macrophages Is Essential for Host Resistance against Aspergillus fumigatus
Mavs expression in alveolar macrophages maintains resistance against A. fumigatus.
An SNP in MAVS is associated with a risk of developing invasive aspergillosis.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Chemorepulsion mechanisms are conserved between Dictyostelium and human neutrophils.
Male and female neutrophils have differences in chemorepulsion mechanisms.
Male and female neutrophils have differences in protein levels and localization.
Genetic Deletion of LRP5 and LRP6 in Macrophages Exacerbates Colitis-Associated Systemic Inflammation and Kidney Injury in Response to Intestinal Commensal Microbiota
LRP5/6 signaling in myeloid cells protects against colitis-associated AKI.
LRP5/6 signaling in macrophages regulates the responsiveness to commensal microbiota.
LRP5/6 signaling limits microbiota-induced systemic and renal inflammation.
• KIR2DS2 is associated with high functional activity of NK cells.
• KIR2DS2+ NK cells possess a transcriptomic profile associated with cytotoxicity.
Glycolipid Metabolite β-Glucosylceramide Is a Neutrophil Extracellular Trap–Inducing Ligand of Mincle Released during Bacterial Infection and Inflammation
Endogenous β-glucosylceramide (β-GlcCer) is a specific NET-inducing ligand of Mincle.
β-GlcCer–induced NETs are antimicrobial and require glycolysis and autophagy.
Cell-free β-GlcCer in infection and inflammation may have diagnostic potential.
Adenosine Alleviates Necrotizing Enterocolitis by Enhancing the Immunosuppressive Function of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Newborns
Adenosine significantly relieves the severity of NEC via regulating MDSCs.
Adenosine enhances the immunosuppressive and antibacterial activity of MDSCs.
Adenosine facilitates the migration of MDSCs to gut via CXCR2.
The Porcine and Chicken Innate DNA Sensing cGAS-STING-IRF Signaling Axes Exhibit Differential Species Specificity
Porcine and chicken STING but not cGAS exhibit species disparity.
The species specificity of STING matches up to downstream IRF3/7.
IRF3 works with only porcine STING, whereas IRF7 works with both porcine and chicken STING.
On the cover: Adenosine dramatically relieves the severity of necrotizing enterocolitis, which is dependent on the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Zhou, D., M. Yao, L. Zhang, Y. Chen, J. He, Y. Zhang, H. Xu, P. Zhou, W. Zhong, Z. Yao, and J. Zhou. 2022. Adenosine alleviates necrotizing enterocolitis by enhancing the immunosuppressive function of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in newborns. J. Immunol. 209: 401–411.
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