An atypical monocyte subset expressing CD56 is associated with COVID-19 severity.
CD56+ monocytes, showing a hyperinflammatory profile, can be induced by IFN-α.
A high CD56+/CD16+ monocyte ratio is associated with mortality of COVID-19 patients.
Cutting Edge: Promoting T Cell Factor 1+ T Cell Self-Renewal to Improve Programmed Cell Death Protein 1 Blockade
Self-renewing T cells responsive to PD-1 blockade are depleted from growing tumors.
Stability of self-renewing TCF1+CD8+ T cells correlates with immunotherapy response.
PI3Kδ inhibitor added to anti–PD-1 boosts TCF1+ T cell pool and lessens tumor growth.
ALLERGY AND OTHER HYPERSENSITIVITIES
IgE+ plasmablasts secrete IgE, supporting the vicious cycle of allergy.
IgE+ plasmablasts correlate with clinical allergy severity and IgE secretion.
An acid wash approach quantifies IgE+ plasmablasts as an allergy severity biomarker.
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
Human Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Express C-Type Lectin Receptors and Attach and Respond to Aspergillus fumigatus
pDCs bind Aspergillus hyphae, inducing activation/maturation.
pDC–A. fumigatus binding is mediated by CLRs, predominantly dectin-1.
Dectin-1 ligation indirectly and directly induces pDC activation and maturation.
An Antibody Neutralization Determinant on Domain III and the First α-Helical Domain in the Stem-Anchor Region of Tembusu Virus Envelope Protein
Neutralizing mAb 6C8 binds a unique epitope involving domain III and H1 of E protein.
6C8 pressure leads to antigenic variation of TMUV in vitro.
Inhibition of IL-17A Protects against Thyroid Immune-Related Adverse Events while Preserving Checkpoint Inhibitor Antitumor Efficacy
Tumor-bearing NOD mice model immune checkpoint inhibitor–associated autoimmunity.
γδT17 and Th17 type 3 immune cells contribute to ICI-associated thyroiditis.
IL-17A inhibition reduces thyroid autoimmunity but preserves the ICI antitumor response.
SpRab11a-Regulated Exosomes Inhibit Bacterial Infection through the Activation of Antilipopolysaccharide Factors in Crustaceans
SpRab11a drives bacterial resistance by regulating exosome formation.
Exosome drives bacterial resistance through exosomal Sp14-3-3.
Exosomal Sp14-3-3 promotes ALFs expression by affecting Dorsal translocation.
Pazopanib ameliorates MHV-1-induced lung injury in A/J mice.
Pazopanib reduces lung cell apoptosis induced by MHV-1 in A/J mice.
Palmitate Potentiates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced IL-6 Production via Coordinated Acetylation of H3K9/H3K18, p300, and RNA Polymerase II
Palmitate priming increases IL-6 secretion by monocytes stimulated with LPS.
Palmitate increases H3K9/H3K18 acetylation in monocytes.
H3K9/H3K18 acetylation associates with Il6 gene transcription.
Soluble Msln and Muc16 regulate GATA6 expression in LCMs.
Monocyte-derived macrophages in cavity spaces are main target of Msln and Muc16.
IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
MHC Class I–Dependent Shaping of the NK Cell Ly49 Receptor Repertoire Takes Place Early during Maturation in the Bone Marrow
NK cell inhibitory receptor repertoire skewing is observed already in bone marrow.
Repertoire skewing may partly be accounted for by selective proliferation.
NK cells expressing self-specific inhibitory receptors have increased DNAM-1.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Preexisting influenza memory protects against secondary bacterial superinfection.
Memory improves epithelial function and reduces inflammation in superinfection.
Preexisting memory alters T cells and innate immune cells during superinfection.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Human neutrophils can be classified into distinct subsets based on transcriptomics.
A modified analysis pipeline provides enhanced detection of neutrophil transcripts.
These subsets cannot be classified using common surface markers.
Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Neutrophil as Orchestrator during β-Glucan–Induced Trained Immunity in a Teleost Fish
β-Glucan induces trained immunity for bacterial clearance in turbot.
Neutrophil is the key cell type mediating trained immunity via the IL-1R pathway.
Ornithine Decarboxylase in Gastric Epithelial Cells Promotes the Immunopathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection
Epithelial ODC contributes to H. pylori–induced pathogenesis.
Genetic deletion of ODC in epithelial cells reduces gastric inflammation.
DFMO limits inflammation through inhibition of epithelial ODC.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Molecular and Structural Basis of Receptor Binding and Signaling of a Fish Type I IFN with Three Disulfide Bonds
We solved the first structure of a type I IFN with three disulfide bonds, LcIFNi.
LcIFNi activates the conserved JAK-STAT pathway by binding with LcCRFB2 and LcCRFB5.
We proposed a structural model of LcIFNi bound to a heterodimeric receptor.
Identification of a Small Molecule with Strong Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Sepsis through Blocking Gasdermin D Activation
C202-2729 significantly attenuates endotoxin shock and EAE.
C202-2729 selectively binds to the N terminus of GSDMD.
C202-2729 blocks the migration of GSDMDNT to cell membrane.
An Engineered Monovalent Anti–TNF-α Antibody with pH-Sensitive Binding Abrogates Immunogenicity in Mice following a Single Intravenous Dose
AF-M2637 is a monovalent adalimumab variant designed to release TNF-α at acidic pH.
AF-M2637 potently neutralizes TNF-α stimulation of THP1 monocytes in vitro.
AF-M2637 is less immunogenic than adalimumab in mice following a single dose.
On the cover: The Tembusu virus envelope (E) protein residue 330 (magenta) is fully exposed on the virion surface of the 5-fold axis of the putative virion particle. The color code for the E protein domains is as follows: DI, red; DII, yellow; DIII, blue. Yang, B., R. Meng, C. Feng, J. Huang, Q. Li, X. Wang, and D. Zhang. 2022. An antibody neutralization determinant on domain III and the first α-helical domain in the stem-anchor region of Tembusu virus envelope protein. J. Immunol. 209: 684–695.
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