MicroRNAs in Macrophages: Regulators of Activation and Function
ANTIGEN RECOGNITION AND RESPONSES
Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated and MSH2 Control Blunt DNA End Joining in Ig Class Switch Recombination
Loss of DNA repair genes Atm and Msh2 produces, to our knowledge, a novel synthetic lethality in mice.
Deletion of Atm and Msh2 in B cells reduces Ig CSR and inhibits blunt joins in NHEJ.
Glucose Requirement of Antigen-Specific Autoreactive B Cells and CD4+ T Cells
The differentiation of lupus autoantigen-specific B cells relies on glycolysis.
These B cells are more glycolytic under Ag-specific than TLR7 stimulation.
The activation of chromatin-specific CD4 T cells does not require glycolysis.
Soluble Signal Inhibitory Receptor on Leukocytes-1 Is Released from Activated Neutrophils by Proteinase 3 Cleavage
sSIRL-1 is increased in patients characterized by neutrophilic inflammation.
In vitro activated neutrophils release sSIRL-1 by proteolytic cleavage.
SIRL-1 shedding is prevented by proteinase 3 inhibition.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Galectin-8 Downmodulates TLR4 Activation and Impairs Bacterial Clearance in a Mouse Model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Keratitis
Galectin-8−/− mice are resistant to P. aeruginosa keratitis.
Galectin-8 downmodulates the innate immune response.
Treatment with galectin-8 inhibitor markedly reduces the severity of P. aeruginosa keratitis.
Arginase 1 Expression by Macrophages Promotes Cryptococcus neoformans Proliferation and Invasion into Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells
Arginase-1 is induced within alveolar macrophages during C. neoformans infection.
Macrophage-derived arginase promotes C. neoformans growth and proliferation.
Macrophage arginase activity is required for cryptococcal brain invasion.
Epitopes in the Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Attachment Signal Peptide of Trypanosoma cruzi Mucin Proteins Generate Robust but Delayed and Nonprotective CD8+ T Cell Responses
Mucin-derived epitope (MUCKb25) elicits immunodominant T cell response.
MUCKb25 T cell response is nonprotective and not required for parasite control.
Detection of T. cruzi–infected cells by MUCKb25 T cells is limited.
Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophages Contributes to the Chronicity of Mycobacterium avium Infection by Promoting Foamy Macrophage Formation
AIM induces foamy macrophages in M. avium infection.
AIM immortalizes M. avium–infected macrophages and makes the disease chronic.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
African Swine Fever Virus E184L Protein Interacts with Innate Immune Adaptor STING to Block IFN Production for Viral Replication and Pathogenesis
ASFV E184L protein inhibits type I IFN production.
ASFV E184L protein interacts with STING to block STING-mediated immune signaling.
E184L-deficient ASFV induces higher levels of IFNs in pigs than its parental virus.
Leptospira interrogans Prevents Macrophage Cell Death and Pyroptotic IL-1β Release through Its Atypical Lipopolysaccharide
Leptospires do not induce macrophage death, but trigger mild IL-1β secretion.
LPS from pathogenic leptospires inhibits caspase 11–induced pyroptosis.
Concealing IL-1β inside macrophages limits inflammation.
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus nsp13 Protein Downregulates Neonatal Fc Receptor Expression by Causing Promoter Hypermethylation through the NF-κB Signaling Pathway
PEDV inhibits FcRn expression.
PEDV nsp13 causes aberrant methylation.
The Absence of IL-12Rβ2 Expression on Recipient Nonhematopoietic Cells Diminishes Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease in the Gastrointestinal Tract
IL-12Rβ2 on recipient nonhematopoietic cells contributes to aGVHD development.
Targeting IL-12Rβ2 may be a potential strategy in the treatment of aGVHD.
Restored Thymic Output after Androgen Blockade Participates in Antitumor Immunity
Androgen deprivation therapy results in increased recent thymic emigrants (RTEs).
RTEs traffic to prostate tumors.
RTEs become activated and produce effector cytokines in the tumor microenvironment.
D-2-Hydroxyglutarate Inhibits Calcineurin Phosphatase Activity to Abolish NF-AT Activation and IL-2 Induction in Stimulated Lymphocytes
D2HG is a normal lymphocyte metabolite modestly increased by stereoselective uptake.
D2HG binds calcineurin and inhibits its phosphatase activity.
External D2HG abolishes NF-AT–driven transcription and IL-2 synthesis.
On the cover: The subcellular localization of STING (green) and African swine fever virus E184L protein (red) in porcine immortalized pulmonary alveolar macrophages was determined by indirect fluorescence assay. The E184L protein significantly colocalized with STING. Zhu, Z., S. Li, C. Ma, F. Yang, W. Cao, H. Liu, X. Chen, T. Feng, Z. Shi, H. Tian, K. Zhang, H. Chen, X. Liu, and H. Zheng. 2023. African swine fever virus E184L protein interacts with innate immune adaptor STING to block IFN production for viral replication and pathogenesis. J. Immunol. 210: 442–458.
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