LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
Cutting Edge: STAT4 Promotes Bhlhe40 Induction to Drive Protective IFN-γ from NK Cells during Viral Infection
The transcription factor Bhlhe40 is highly induced in NK cells during MCMV infection.
Bhlhe40 upregulation is driven by IL-12 via STAT4 binding of the Bhlhe40 promoter.
Bhlhe40 is critical for protection against infection by promoting IFN-γ production.
Anti-DNA autoantibody response in DNASE1L3-deficient mice requires TLR2.
Microbial products signal via TLR2 to elicit IL-6 secretion by B cells.
IL-15 priming of NK cells enables metabolic flexibility for IFN-γ production.
IL-15 priming alters the transcriptional response to activating receptor stimulation.
Myc marks NK cells capable of Ifng transcription, but is not required.
Depletion of Neural Crest–Derived Cells Leads to Plasma Noradrenaline Decrease and Alters T Cell Development
Depletion of NC-derived cells leads to reduction of noradrenaline.
NC-derived cells contribute to mesenchymal cells and sympathetic nerves in the adult thymus.
NC-derived cells within adult thymus regulate early T cell development.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
B Cells from Aged Mice Do Not Have Intrinsic Defects in Affinity Maturation in Response to Immunization
Aged GC B cells can undergo positive selection in young mice upon immunization.
Aged GC B cells acquire high-affinity mutations postimmunization in young mice.
B cells from young mice have fewer high-affinity mutations in aged hosts.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Notopterol ameliorates ligature-induced periodontitis in mice.
Notopterol attenuates inflammatory response by inhibiting the NF-κB pathway.
Notopterol lowers ROS production via activation of the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2 pathway.
Host Genetic Variation Has a Profound Impact on Immune Responses Mediating Control of Viral Load in Chronic Gammaherpesvirus Infection
Host genotype alters immunological mechanisms of gammaherpesvirus infection control.
C57BL/6J mice expand Th CTL populations in response to chronic MHV-68 infection.
Superior control of MHV-68 viral load in PWD/PhJ mice is dependent on NK cells.
Borrelia burgdorferi Infection–Induced Persistent IgM Secretion Controls Bacteremia, but Not Bacterial Dissemination or Tissue Burden
B. burgdorferi induces B-2 cells to continuously secrete passively protective IgM.
IgM suppresses B. burgdorferi burden in the blood, but not in tissues.
B. burgdorferi promotes enhanced IgM secretion after vaccination.
Anti-TLR4 mAb, a TLR4 blocker, or TLR4 deficiency ameliorated hepatitis.
Intrarectal inoculation of E. coli, as an extra source of LPS, exacerbates hepatitis.
The LPS–TLR4 pathway plays a pivotal role in hepatitis of MHV68-infected mice.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Oxidized Low-Density Lipoprotein Accumulation Suppresses Glycolysis and Attenuates the Macrophage Inflammatory Response by Diverting Transcription from the HIF-1α to the Nrf2 Pathway
OxLDL accumulation in Mφs impairs LPS-induced HIF-1α–dependent glycolysis.
OxLDL accumulation in Mφs enhances LPS-induced Nrf2-dependent antioxidative response.
Competition for NADPH between HIF-1 and Nrf2 processes fine-tunes inflammation.
Evaluation of the Ability of AlphaFold to Predict the Three-Dimensional Structures of Antibodies and Epitopes
AlphaFold was used to predict 222 new (to our knowledge) 3D high-resolution atomic structures of Ab chains.
Low accuracy was observed in the prediction of HC-CDR3 and the elbow angles.
Predicting Ab–Ag complexes and epitope mapping using AlphaFold-Multimer was limited.
Low-dose intratumoral GM-CSF reduces breast tumor hypoxia and normalizes vasculature.
Low-dose GM-CSF priming sensitizes “cold” PyMT tumors to anti-PD1 immunotherapy.
The GM-CSF effects on TAM vary between “hot” and cold TNBC models.
On the cover: Ag native structure docked by ZDOCK with Ab Fab structure predicted by AlphaFold (violet) superimposed on the native complex (yellow; Protein Data Bank identifier 7N3D) and visualized using PyMol software. Polonsky, K., T. Pupko, and N. T. Freund. 2023. Evaluation of the ability of AlphaFold to predict the three-dimensional structures of antibodies and epitopes. J. Immunol. 211: 1578–1588.
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