The Vdr is expressed in Aire+ medullary thymic epithelial cells.
Thymic vitamin D signaling stimulates Aire expression and Aire-dependent gene transcription.
Aire interacts with the Vdr and is a coactivator of Vdr-dependent transcription.
Cutting Edge: Optimal Formation of Hepatic Tissue-Resident Memory CD4 T Cells Requires T-bet Regulation of CD18
T-bet is required and sufficient to drive competitive liver CD4 TRM formation.
T-bet drives CD18 expression on CD4 T cells.
CD18 blockade ablated the T-bet–dependent effect of TRM formation.
Suppression of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Mice by β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate, a Body-Building Supplement in Humans
HMB, a body-building supplement in humans, suppresses EAE.
HMB enhances Tregs and downregulates Th17/Th1.
HMB requires PPARβ, not PPARα, for immunomodulation and protection of EAE.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
sTACI-s and sTACI-l are shed from plasmablasts by ADAM10.
sTACI-s blocks BAFF, and sTACI-l additionally blocks APRIL.
sTACI-l is the prevalent form of sTACI in human serum.
IMMUNE SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT
ΔSatb1 thymocytes show precocious thymic egress after positive selection.
Loss of Satb1 affects mTECs by lower expression of Tnfsf11 and Cd40lg.
Early egress and mTEC defects affect tTreg production in ΔSatb1.
IMMUNOTHERAPY AND VACCINES
Efficacy of a Dual-Epitope Dendritic Cell Vaccine as Part of Combined Immunotherapy for HER2-Expressing Breast Tumors
The combinatorial dual-epitope DC vaccine is safe.
This vaccine regimen induced an immune response in a minority of patients.
One patient had an exceptional response and long-term survival.
Three-Dimensional Modeling of Solid Tumors and Their Microenvironment to Evaluate T Cell Therapy Efficacy In Vitro
3D cytotoxicity assay models can be used to evaluate T cell efficacy in solid tumors.
TEG A3 are highly tumor specific and lyse 3D tumor structures effectively in vitro.
TEG A3 are tumor specific in mixed 3D hybrid target structures.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
The RNA-binding protein DDX5 regulates CD8+ T cell differentiation.
DDX5 represses the generation of central memory CD8+ T cells.
DDX5-deficient CD8+ T cells exhibit increased expression of central memory cell–associated genes.
SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 Mediates Signals in Macrophages and Monocytes through MyD88 Independently of the IL-17 Receptor
SARS-CoV-2 ORF8 but not IL-17 upregulates cytokines in monocytes/macrophages.
Monocytes and macrophages infected with SARS-CoV-2 do not express IL-17RC.
ORF8 signals through MyD88.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
LPS increased phagocytosis, NADPH oxidase activity, hypoxic signals, and inflammation.
NAM increased NAD and posttranslational modifications to inhibit the LPS response.
Decreased macrophage activation by NAM may reduce inflammation and pathogen clearance.
Th1 Cells Alter the Inflammatory Signature of IL-6 by Channeling STAT Transcription Factors to Alu-like Retroelements
Th1 cells alter the transcriptional output of IL-6 during acute inflammation.
IL-6 and IFN-γ activities combine to steer tissue responses to inflammation.
STAT1 and STAT3 work in partnership to regulate immune outcomes.
Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapy Decreases IL-1β Expression and Prolongs Survival in Mutant Nlrp3 Mice
Nlrp3-specific ASO treatment downregulates Nlrp3 expression and IL-1β release in murine CAPS.
Nlrp3-specific ASO treatment reduces systemic inflammation in murine CAPS.
Targeted TLR9 Agonist Elicits Effective Antitumor Immunity against Spontaneously Arising Breast Tumors
PIP-CpG is a systemically administered, tumor-targeting TLR9 agonist.
PIP-CpG drives effective T cell–mediated immunity against spontaneous breast tumors.
PIP-CpG dramatically alters the innate and adaptive immune landscape of these tumors.
On the cover: Incucyte S3 live-cell image at 48 h of tumor spheroids formed with Cytolight Red–labeled LucTom HT 29 CD277 knockout (KO) cells cocultured with TEG A3 (αβ T cell expressing a specific γ9δ2 TCR clone) in presence of pamidronate, showing that TEG A3 does not recognize and lyse HT-29 KO tumor spheroids. Pscheid, R., E. Drent, J. Wienke, J. G. M. Strijker, M. Throsby, and J. J. Molenaar. 2023. Three-dimensional modeling of solid tumors and their microenvironment to evaluate T cell therapy efficacy in vitro. J. Immunol. 211: 229–240.
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