PILLARS OF IMMUNOLOGY
Cutting Edge: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 Subunit Cbx4 Positively Regulates Effector Responses in CD8 T Cells
The PcG protein Cbx4 favors CTL differentiation to an effector phenotype.
Cbx4 deficiency alters CTL differentiation, increasing memory formation.
Cbx4 drives effector formation mainly through its SIM motifs.
The expression of the PBX1D splice isoform in CD4+ T cells is associated with SLE.
PBX1D lacks the DNA-binding domain and nuclear localization sequence in exon 6.
Loss of two Lys residues in exon 6 accelerates PBX1D degradation by the proteasome.
CLINICAL AND HUMAN IMMUNOLOGY
CD4 Phenotypes Are Associated with Reduced Expansion of Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Melanoma Patients Treated with Adoptive Cell Therapy
Lower numbers of infused TIL are associated with poor overall survival in patients.
High frequencies of CD4+ cells are associated with reduced expansion of TIL.
Increased expression of ETS2 or OSM is associated with reduced expansion of TIL.
N-Glycosylation of the Ig Receptors Shapes the Antigen Reactivity in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Subset #201
CLL subset #201 displays biased features of somatic hypermutation.
Subset #201 exemplifies the role of N-glycosylation in the evolution of CLL.
A STAP-2 inhibitor, iSP2, inhibits interaction of STAP-2 with CD3ζ ITAMs.
iSP2 suppresses TCR-mediated T cell activation events.
iSP2 reduces disease severity of CD4+ T cell–mediated EAE.
B. thetaiotaomicron drives IL-10 via a TLR2–MyD88 pathway.
B. thetaiotaomicron–secreted outer membrane vesicles mediate its immunomodulatory function.
The B. thetaiotaomicron NQR complex coordinates outer membrane vesicle biogenesis to promote IL-10 induction.
TGF-β Signaling Prevents MHC Class II–Expressing Lymphatic Endothelial Cells from Reactivating Human Allogenic Memory CD4+ T Cells
IFN-γ and TNF-α upregulate GARP on LECs, leading to increased membrane-anchored TGF-β.
TGF-β prevents LEC MHC-II from reactivating CD4+ TMs.
LECs support the maintenance of FOXP3+ memory CD4 T cells.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE AND HOST RESPONSE
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin–Trained Macrophages Elicit a Protective Inflammatory Response against the Pathogenic Bacteria Brucella abortus
Macrophages from BCG-trained mice lead to a reduction of B. abortus burden.
Previous BCG immunization confers protection in RAG−/− mice against B. abortus.
BCG-trained bone marrow transfer to naive mice protects against B. abortus infection.
Soluble Enolase 1 of Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus Stimulates Human and Mouse B Cells and Monocytes
Fungal enolase 1 binds and activates mouse and human B cells.
Mouse and human B cells secrete Abs upon stimulation with fungal enolase 1.
Fungal enolase 1 induces human monocytes, but not B cells, to secrete IL-6.
PD-L1/BTLA Checkpoint Axis Exploited for Bacterial Immune Escape by Restraining CD8+ T Cell–Initiated Adaptive Immunity in Zebrafish
PD-L1/BTLA axis acts as a primordial substitute of PD-L1/PD-1 in fish.
PD-L1/BTLA is exploited by E. tarda to restrain CD8+ T cell–mediated cytotoxicity.
Insights are given into an immune evasion strategy of pathogen via eliciting PD-L1/BTLA.
Single-Cell Analysis of CX3CR1+ Cells Reveals a Pathogenic Role for BIRC5+ Myeloid Proliferating Cells Driven by Staphylococcus aureus Leukotoxins
CX3CR1+BIRC5+ immune cells expand with S. mansoni and S. aureus infection.
Leukocidin-deficient S. aureus does not induce CX3CR1+BIRC5+ myeloid cells.
Deletion of BIRC5 in CX3CR1+ cells improves survival with S. aureus infection.
INNATE IMMUNITY AND INFLAMMATION
Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis Links Nonmyelinating Schwann Cells to Proinflammatory Response in the Lung
Lung scRNA-seq identified two NMSC populations and one mSC population.
NMSCs but not mSCs appear to be responsive to proinflammatory cues in the lung.
NMSCs may play a functional role in lung inflammation.
The Transcription Factor RXRα in CD11c+ APCs Regulates Intestinal Immune Homeostasis and Inflammation
RXRα in APCs regulates intestinal immune homeostasis and colitis.
RXRα regulates the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors.
Pharmacological activation of the RXRα pathway alleviates colitis severity in mice.
MOLECULAR AND STRUCTURAL IMMUNOLOGY
Trypanosoma brucei Invariant Surface gp65 Inhibits the Alternative Pathway of Complement by Accelerating C3b Degradation
ISG65 from Trypanosoma brucei stimulates factor I degradation of complement C3b.
ISG65 forms a ternary complex with iC3b and the CR3 ligand binding domain.
ISG65 is a cross-reactive specific inhibitor of the complement alternative pathway.
TIPE1 deficiency in resident cells promotes inflammation but not colon tumorigenesis.
TIPE1 integrates the multifaceted effects of TNF-α signaling to regulate the IEC response.
TIPE and TIPE1 play redundant roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis in mice.
Lack of IFN-γ Receptor Signaling Inhibits Graft-versus-Host Disease by Potentiating Regulatory T Cell Expansion and Conversion
IFN-γR signaling inhibits Treg expansion and peripheral Treg induction.
Impairing the IFN-γR signal in Tcons could mitigate GVHD while preserving GVL effects.
IL-27 Gene Therapy Induces Stat3-Mediated Expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ Myeloid Cells and Promotes Accumulation of M1 Macrophages in the Tumor Microenvironment
IL-27 gene therapy induces Stat3-mediated expansion of CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid cells.
IL-27 induces expansion of LSK stem cells and granulocyte–macrophage progenitor cells in bone marrow.
IL-27 gene therapy induces accumulation of M1 macrophages in tumors.
On the cover: A representative gut section (H&E; original magnification ×100) of a mouse receiving IFN-γ receptor knockout allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant shows mild graft-versus-host disease–associated tissue damage and disruption. Zhai, N., W. Liu, C.-H. Jin, Y. Ding, L. Sun, D. Zhang, Z. Wang, Y. Tang, W. Zhao, C. LeGuern, M. Y. Mapara, H. Wang, and Y.-G. Yang. 2023. Lack of IFN-γ receptor signaling inhibits graft-versus-host disease by potentiating regulatory T cell expansion and conversion. J. Immunol. 211: 885–894.
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